M. Sc. Horticulture
Fruit Science (FSC) (M.Sc.)
- Tropical Fruit Production
- Sub-Tropical and Temperate Fruit Production
- Propagation and Nursery Management of Fruit Crops
- Breeding of Fruit Crops
- Systematics of Fruit Crops
- Canopy Management in Fruit Crops
- Growth and Development of Fruit Crops
- Nutrition of Fruit Crops
- Biotechnology of Fruit Crops
- Organic Fruit Culture
- Export Oriented Fruit Production
- Minor Fruit Production
Vegetable Science (VSC) (M.Sc.)
- Production of Cool Season Vegetable Crops
- Production of Warm Season Vegetable Crops
- Growth and Development of Vegetable Crops
- Principles of Vegetable Breeding
- Breeding of Self Pollinated Vegetable Crops
- Breeding of Cross Pollinated Vegetable Crops
- Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops
- Seed Production of Vegetable Crops
- Production of Underutilized Vegetable Crops
- Systematics of Vegetable Crops
- Organic Vegetable Production
- Production of Spice Crops
- Processing of Vegetable
- Postharvest Management of Vegetable Crops
Floriculture and Landscaping (FLS) (M.Sc.)
- Systematics of Ornamental Plants
- Breeding of Ornamental Plants
- Commercial Production of Cut Flowers
- Commercial Production of Loose Flowers
- Ornamental Gardening and Landscaping
- Indoor Plants and Interiorscaping
- Nursery Management in Ornamental Plants
- Turf Grass Management
- Value Addition in Floriculture
- Protected Cultivation of Flower Crops
- CAD for Landscaping
- Seed Production in Flower Crops
Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops (PSM) (M.Sc.)
- Production of Plantation Crops
- Production of Spice Crops
- Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
- Breeding of Plantation and Spice Crops
- Breeding of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
- Systematics of Plantation and Spice Crops
- Systematics of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
- Underexploited Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
- Growth and Development of Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
- Biochemistry of Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic crops
- Biodiversity and Conservation of Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Post-Harvest Management (PHM) (M.Sc.)
- Postharvest Management of Horticultural Produce
- Postharvest Physiology and Biochemistry of Perishables
- Packaging and Storage of Fresh Horticultural Produce
- Packaging and Storage of Processed Horticultural Produce
- Principles and Methods of Fruit And Vegetable Preservation
- Laboratory Techniques in Postharvest Management
- Processing of Horticultural Produce
- Quality Assurance, Safety and Sensory Evaluation of Fresh and Processed
- Horticultural Produce
- Functional Foods from Horticultural Produce
- Marketing and Entrepreneurship in Postharvest Horticulture
Tropical Fruit Production
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: Importance and Background: Importance, origin and distribution, major species, rootstocks and commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, eco-physiological requirements. Block 2: Agro-techniques Unit I: Propagation, Planting and Orchard Floor Management: Asexual and sexual methods of propagation, planting systems and planting densities, training and pruning methods, rejuvenation, intercropping, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, use of bio-fertilizers, role of bio-regulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production. Block 3: Crop Management Unit I: Flowering, Fruit-Set and Harvesting: Physiology of flowering, pollination management, fruit set and development, physiological disorders – causes and remedies, crop regulation, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; insect and disease management. Crops Mango, Banana, Guava, Pineapple, Papaya, Avocado, Jackfruit, Annonas, Aonla, Ber, etc.
Practical: Distinguished features of tropical fruit species, cultivars and rootstocks (2); Demonstration of planting systems, training and pruning (3); Hands on practices on pollination and crop regulation (2); Leaf sampling and nutrient analysis (3); Physiological disorders-malady diagnosis (1); Physico-chemical analysis of fruit quality attributes (3); Field/ Exposure visits to tropical orchards (1); Project preparation for establishing commercial orchards (1).
Sub-Tropical and Temperate Fruit Production
Course Title: Subtropical and Temperate Fruit Production (FSC 502)
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: Importance and Background: Origin, distribution and importance, major species, rootstocks and commercial varieties of regional, national and international importance, eco-physiological requirements. Block 2: Agro-Techniques Unit I: Propagation, Planting and Orchard Floor Management: Propagation, planting systems and densities, training and pruning, rejuvenation and replanting, intercropping, nutrient management, water management, fertigation, use of bio-fertilizers, role of bio-regulators, abiotic factors limiting fruit production. Block 3: Crop Management Unit I: Flowering, Fruit-Set and Harvesting: Physiology of flowering, pollination management, fruit set and development, physiological disorders- causes and remedies, crop regulation, quality improvement by management practices; maturity indices, harvesting, grading, packing, storage and ripening techniques; insect and disease management. Crops Citrus, Grapes, Litchi, Pomegranate, Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Apricot, Cherries, Berries, Persimmon, Kiwifruit, Nuts- Walnut, Almond, Pecan, etc.
Practicals: Distinguished features of fruit species, cultivars and rootstocks (2); Demonstration of planting systems, training and pruning (3); Hands on practices on pollination and crop regulation (2); Leaf sampling and nutrient analysis (3); Physiological disorders-malady diagnosis (1); Physico-chemical analysis of fruit quality attributes (3); Field/ Exposure visits to subtropical and temperate orchards (1); Project preparation for establishing commercial orchards (1).
Propagation and Nursery Management of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit 1: General Concepts and Phenomena: Introduction, understanding cellular basis for propagation, sexual and asexual propagation, apomixis, polyembryony, chimeras. Factors influencing seed germination of fruit crops, dormancy, hormonal regulation of seed germination and seedling growth. Seed quality, treatment, packing, storage, certification and testing. Block 2: Propagation Unit I: Conventional Asexual Propagation: Cutting– methods, rooting of soft and hardwood cuttings under mist and hotbeds. Use of PGR in propagation, Physiological, anatomical and biochemical aspects of root induction in cuttings. Layering – principle and methods. Budding and grafting – principles and methods, establishment and management of bud wood bank. Stock, scion and inter stock relationship – graft incompatibility, physiology of rootstock and top working. Unit II: Micropropagation: Micro-propagation – principles and concepts, commercial exploitation in horticultural crops. Techniques – in-vitro clonal propagation, direct organogenesis, embryogenesis, micrografting, meristem culture, genetic fidelity testing. Hardening, packaging and transport of micro-propagules. Block 3: Nursery Unit I: Management Practices and Regulation: Nursery – types, structures, components, planning and layout. Nursery management practices for healthy propagule production. Nursery Act, nursery accreditation, import and export of seeds and planting material and quarantine.
Practical: Hands on practices on rooting of dormant and summer cuttings (3); Anatomical studies in rooting of cutting and graft union(1); Hands on practices on various methods of budding and grafting (4); Propagation by layering and stooling (2); Micropropagation- explant preparation, media preparation, culturing – meristem tip culture, axillary bud culture, micro-grafting, hardening (4); Visit to commercial tissue culture laboratories and accredited nurseries (2).
Breeding of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: Importance, Taxonomy and Genetic Resources: Introduction and importance, origin and distribution, taxonomical status – species and cultivars, cytogenetics, genetic resources. Block 2: Reproductive Biology Unit I: Blossom Biology and Breeding Systems: Blossom biology, breeding systems – spontaneous mutations, polyploidy, incompatibility, sterility, parthenocarpy, apomixis, breeding objectives, ideotypes. Block 3: Breeding Approaches Unit I: Conventional and Non-Conventional Breeding: Approaches for crop improvement – direct introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploid breeding, rootstock breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, biotechnological interventions, achievements and future thrusts. Crops Mango, Banana, Pineapple, Citrus, Grapes, Litchi, Guava, Pomegranate, Papaya, Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Apricot, Cherries, Strawberry, Kiwifruit, Nuts
Practical: Exercises on bearing habit, floral biology (2); Pollen viability and fertility studies (1); Hands on practices in hybridization (3); Raising and handling of hybrid progenies (2); Induction of mutations and polyploidy (2); Evaluation of biometrical traits and quality traits (2); Screening for resistance against abiotic stresses (2); Developing breeding programme for specific traits (2); Visit to research stations working on fruit breeding (1).
Systematics of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Biosystematics Unit I: Nomenclature and Classification: Biosystematics – introduction and significance; history of nomenclature of cultivated plants, classification and nomenclature systems; International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants Block 2: Botanical Keys and Descriptors Unit I: Identification and Description: Methods of identification and description of cultivated fruit and nut species and their wild relatives features; development of plant keys for systematic identification and classification. Development of fruit crop descriptors- based upon Bioversity International Descriptors and UPOV/ DUS test guidelines, botanical and pomological description of major cultivars and rootstocks of tropical, subtropical and temperate fruits and nut crops Block 3: Special Topics Unit I: Registration and Modern Systematics: Registration, Use of chemotaxonomy, biochemical and molecular markers in modern systematics
Practical: Exercises on identification and pomological description of various fruit species and cultivars (6); Development of descriptive blanks vis-a-vis UPOV/ DUS test guidelines and Bioversity International (4); Descriptors for developing fruit species and cultivar descriptive databases (4); Visits to major germplasm centres and field genebanks (2).
Canopy Management in Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Canopy Architecture Unit I: Introduction, Types and Classification: Canopy management – importance and factors affecting canopy development. Canopy types and structures, canopy manipulation for optimum utilization of light and its interception. Spacing and utilization of land area – Canopy classification. Block 2: Canopy Management Unit I: Physical Manipulation and Growth Regulation: Canopy management through rootstock and scion. Canopy management through plant growth regulators, training and pruning and management practices. Canopy development and management in relation to growth, flowering, fruiting and fruit quality.
Practical: Study of different types of canopies (2); Training of plants for different canopy types (2); Canopy development through pruning (2); Understanding bearing behaviour and canopy management in different fruits (2); Use of plant growth regulators (2); Geometry of planting (1); Development of effective canopy with support system (2); Study on effect of different canopy types on production and quality of fruits (2).
Growth and Development of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: General Concepts and Principles: Growth and development- definition, parameters of growth and development, growth dynamics and
morphogenesis. Block 2: Environment and Development Unit I: Climatic Factors, Hormones and Developmental Physiology: Environmental impact on growth and development- effect of light, temperature, photosynthesis and photoperiodism, vernalisation, heat units and thermoperiodism. Assimilate partitioning, influence of water and mineral nutrition in growth and development; concepts of plant hormone and bioregulators, history, biosynthesis and physiological role of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid, ethylene, growth inhibitors and retardant, brasssinosteroids, other New PGRs. Developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility, vegetative to reproductive interphase, flowering, pollination, fertilization and fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening and seed development. Block 3: Stress Management Unit I: Strategies for Overcoming Stress: Growth and developmental process during stress – manipulation of growth and development, impact of pruning and training, chemical manipulations and Commercial application of PGRs in fruit crops, molecular and genetic approaches in plant growth and development.
Practical: Understanding dormancy mechanisms in fruit crops and seed stratification (2); Techniques of growth analysis (2); Evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency under different environments (2); Exercises on hormone assays (2); Practicals on use of growth regulators (2); Understanding ripening phenomenon in fruits (2); Study on impact of physical manipulations on growth and development (1); Study on chemical manipulations on growth and development (1); Understanding stress impact on growth and development (1).
Nutrition of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: General Concepts and Principles: Importance and history of nutrition in fruit crops, essential plant nutrients, factors affecting plant nutrition; nutrient uptake and their removal from soil. Block 2: Requirements and Applications Unit I: Diagnostics, Estimation and Application: Nutrient requirements, root distribution in fruit crops, soil and foliar application of nutrients in major fruit crops, fertilizer use efficiency. Methods and techniques for evaluating the requirement of macro- and micro-elements, Diagnostic and interpretation techniques including DRIS. Role of different macroand micro-nutrients, their deficiency and toxicity disorders, corrective measures to overcome deficiency and toxicity disorders. Block 3: Newer Approaches Unit I: Integrated Nutrient Management (INM): Fertigation in fruit crops, biofertilizers and their use in INM systems.
Practical: Visual identification of nutrient deficiency symptoms in fruit crops (2); Identification and application of organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers (1); Soil/ tissue collection and preparation for macro- and micro-nutrient analysis (1); Analysis of soil physical and chemical properties- pH, EC, Organic carbon (1); Determination of N,P,K and other macro- and micronutrients (6); Fertigation in glasshouse and field grown horticultural crops (2); Preparation of micro-nutrient solutions, their spray and soil applications (2).
Biotechnology of Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: General Background Unit I: Introduction, History and Basic Principles: Introduction and significance, history and basic principles, influence of explant material, physical, chemical factors and growth regulators on growth and development of plant cell, tissue and organ culture. Block 2: Tissue Culture Unit I: In-vitro Culture and Hardening: Callus culture – types, cell division, differentiation, morphogenesis, organogenesis, embryogenesis; Organ culture – meristem, embryo, anther, ovule culture, embryo rescue, somaclonal variation, protoplast culture. Use of bioreactors and in-vitro methods for production of secondary metabolites, suspension culture, nutrition of tissues and cells, regeneration of tissues. Hardening and ex vitro establishment of tissue cultured plants. Block 3: Genetic Manipulation Unit I: In-vitro Breeding, Transgenics and Gene Technologies: Somatic cell hybridisation, construction and identification of somatic hybrids and cybrids, wide hybridization, in-vitro pollination and fertilization, haploids, in-vitro mutation, artificial seeds, cryopreservation, In-vitro selection for biotic and abiotic stress. Genetic engineering- principles and methods, transgenics in fruit crops, use of molecular markers and genomics. Gene silencing, gene tagging, gene editing, achievements of biotechnology in fruit crops.
Practical: An exposure to low cost, commercial and homestead tissue culture laboratories (2); Media preparation, Inoculation of explants for clonal propagation, callus induction and culture, regeneration of plantlets from callus (3); Sub-culturing techniques on anther, ovule, embryo culture, somaclonal variation (4); In-vitro mutant selection against abiotic stress (2); Protoplast culture and fusion technique (2); Development of protocols for mass multiplication (2); Project development for establishment of commercial tissue culture laboratory (1).
Organic Fruit Culture
Content: Block 1: General Aspects Unit I: Principles and Current Scenario: Organic horticulture, scope, area, production and world trade, definition, principles, methods and SWOT analysis. Block 2: Organic Culture Unit I: Farming System and Practices: Organic farming systems including biodynamic farming, natural farming, homa organic farming, rishi krishi, EM technology, cosmic farming; on-farm and off-farm production of organic inputs, role of bio-fertilizers, bio enhancers, legumes, inter cropping, cover crops, green manuring, zero tillage, mulching and their role in organic nutrition management. Organic seeds and planting materials, soil health management in organic production, weed management practices in organic farming, biological management of pests and diseases, trap crops, quality improvement in organic production of fruit crops. Block 3: Certification Unit I: Inspection, Control Measures and Certification: Inspection and certification of organic produce, participatory guarantee system (PGS), NPOP, documentation and control, development of internal control system (ICS), Concept of group certification, constitution of grower group as per NPOP, preparation of ICS manual, internal and external inspection, concept of third party verification, certification of small farmer groups (Group Certification), transaction certificate, group certificate, critical control points (CCP) and HACCP, IFOAM guidelines on certification scope and chain of custody, certification trademark The Logo, accredited certification bodies under NPOP. Constraints in certification, IFOAM and global scenario of organic movement, postharvest management of organic produce. Economics of organic fruit production.
Practical: Design of organic orchards/ farms management (1); Conversion plan (1); Nutrient management and microbial assessment of composts and bio-enhancers (2); Preparation and application of composts, bio-enhancers and bio-pesticides (2); Organic nursery raising (1); Application of composts, bio-enhancers, bio-fertilisers and bio-pesticides, green manure, cover, mulching (2); Preparation and use of neem based products (1); Biodynamic preparations and their role in organic agriculture, EM technology and products, biological/ natural management of pests and diseases (2); Soil solarisation (1); Frame work for GAP (1); Documentation for certification (1).
Export Oriented Fruit Production
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: Statistics and World Trade: National and international fruit export and import scenario and trends; Statistics and India’s position and potentiality in world trade; export promotion zones in India. Government Policies. Block 2: Regulations Unit I: Policies, Norms and Standards: Scope, produce specifications, quality and safety standards for export of fruits, viz., mango, banana, grape, litchi, pomegranate, walnut, apple and other important fruits. Processed and value-added products, post harvest management for export including packaging and cool chain; HACCP, Codex alimentarius, ISO certification; WTO and its implications, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures. Block 3: Quality Assurance Unit I: Infrastructure and Plant Material: Quality fruit production under protected environment; different types of structures – Automated greenhouses, glasshouse, shade net, poly tunnels – Design and development of low cost greenhouse structures. Seed and planting material; meeting export standards, implications of plant variety protection – patent regimes.
Practical: Export promotion zones and export scenario of fresh fruits and their products (1); Practical exercises on quality standards of fruits for export purpose (2); Quality standards of planting material and seeds (2); Hi-tech nursery in fruits (1); Practicals on ISO specifications and HACCP for export of fruits (3); Sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures during export of horticultural produce (2); Post harvest management chain of horticultural produce for exports (2); Visit to export oriented units/ agencies like APEDA, NHB, etc.
Climate Change and Fruit Crops
Content: Block 1: General Aspects Unit I: Introduction, Global Warming and Climatic Variability: Introduction to climate change. Factors directly affecting climate change. Global warming, effect of climate change on spatio-temporal patterns of temperature and rainfall, concentrations of greenhouse gasses in atmosphere. pollution levels such as tropospheric ozone, change in climatic variability and extreme events. Block 2: Climate Change and Management Unit I: Impact Assessment and Mitigation: Sensors for recording climatic parameters, plants response to the climate changes, premature bloom, marginally overwintering or inadequate winter chilling hours, longer growing seasons and shifts in plant hardiness for fruit crops. Climate mitigation measures through crop management- use of tolerant rootstocks and varieties, mulching – use of plastic- windbreak- spectral changes- protection from frost and heat waves. Climate management in greenhouse- heating – vents – CO2 injection – screens – artificial light. Impact of climate changes on invasive insect, disease, weed, fruit yield, quality and sustainability. Climate management for control of pests, diseases, quality, elongation of growth and other plant processes- closed production systems. Block 3: Case Studies Unit I: Response to Climate Change: Case studies – responses of fruit trees to climatic variability vis-a-vis tolerance and adaptation; role of fruit tree in carbon sequestration.
Minor Fruit Production
Content: Block 1: Introduction Unit I: Occurrence, Adoption and General Account: Importance – occurrence and distribution, climate adaptation in fragile ecosystem and wastelands. Block 2: Agro-Techniques Unit I: Propagation and Cultural Practices: Traditional cultural practices and recent development in agro-techniques; propagation, botany-floral biology, growth patterns, mode of pollination, fruit set, ripening, fruit quality. Block 3: Marketing and Utilization Unit I: Post-Harvest Management: Post harvest management, marketing; minor fruit crops in terms of medicinal and antioxidant values; their uses for edible purpose and in processing industry Crops Bael, chironji, fig, passion fruit, jamun, phalsa, karonda, woodapple, cactus pear, khejri, kair, pilu, lasoda, loquat, tamarind, dragon fruit, monkey jack, mahua, khirni, amra, kokum, cape gooseberry, kaphal, persimmon, pistachio, seabuckthorn, hazel nut and other minor fruits of regional importance
Practical: Visits to institutes located in the hot and cold arid regions of the country (2); Identification of minor fruits plants/ cultivars (2); Collection of leaves and preparation of herbarium (1); Allelopathic studies (2); Generating know-how on reproductive biology of minor fruits (4); Fruit quality attributes and biochemical analysis (3); Project formulation for establishing commercial orchards in fragile ecosystems (1).
Horticultural Sciences – Vegetable Science (VSC) (M.Sc.)
Production of Cool Season Vegetable Crops
Content: Introduction, commercial and nutritional importance, origin and distribution, botany and taxonomy, area, production, productivity and constraints, soil requirements, climatic factors for yield and quality, commercial varieties/ hybrids, seed rate and seed treatment, raising of nursery, sowing/ planting time and methods, hrydroponics and aeroponics, precision farming, cropping system, nutritional including micronutrients and irrigation requirements, intercultural operations, special horticultural practices, weed control, mulching, role of plant growth regulators, physiological disorders, maturity indices, harvesting, yield, post-harvest management (grading, packaging and marketing), pest and disease management and production economics of crops. Bulb and tuber crops—Onion, garlic and potato. Cole crops—Cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale. Root crops—Carrot, radish, turnip and beetroot. Peas and beans—Garden peas and broad bean. Leafy vegetables—Beet leaf, fenugreek, coriander and lettuce.
Practical: Scientific raising of nursery and seed treatment; Sowing and transplanting; Description of commercial varieties and hybrids; Demonstration on methods of irrigation, fertilizers and micronutrients application; Mulching practices, weed management; Use of plant growth substances in cool season vegetable crops; Study of nutritional and physiological disorders; Studies on hydroponics, aeroponics and other soilless culture; Identification of important pest and diseases and their control; Preparation of cropping scheme for commercial farms; Visit to commercial farm, greenhouse/ polyhouses; Visit to vegetable market; Analysis of benefit to cost ratio.
Production of Warm Season Vegetable Crops
Content: Introduction, commercial and nutritional importance, origin and distribution, botany and taxonomy, area, production, productivity and constraints, soil requirements, climatic factors for yield and quality, commercial varieties/ hybrids, seed rate and seed treatment, raising of nursery including grafting technique, sowing/ planting time and methods, precision farming, cropping system, nutritional including micronutrients and irrigation requirements, intercultural operations, special horticultural practices namely hydroponics, aeroponics, weed control, mulching, role of plant growth regulators, physiological disorders, maturity indices, harvesting, yield, post-harvest management (grading, packaging and marking), pest and disease management and economics of crops. Fruit vegetables—Tomato, brinjal, hot pepper, sweet pepper and okra. Beans—French bean, Indian bean (Sem), cluster bean and cowpea. Cucurbits—Cucumber, melons, gourds, pumpkin and squashes. Tuber crops—Sweet potato, elephant foot yam, tapioca, taro and yam. Leafy vegetables—Amaranth and drumstick.
Practical: Scientific raising of nursery and seed treatment; Sowing, transplanting, vegetable grafting; Description of commercial varieties and hybrids; Demonstration on methods of irrigation, fertilizers and micronutrients application; Mulching practices, weed management; Use of plant growth substances in warm season vegetable crops; Study of nutritional and physiological disorders; Studies on hydroponics, aeroponics and other soilless culture; Identification of important pest and diseases and their control; Preparation of cropping scheme for commercial farms; Visit to commercial farm, greenhouse/ polyhouses; Visit to vegetable market; Analysis of benefit to cost ratio.
Growth and Development of Vegetable Crops
Content: Introduction and phytohormones—Definition of growth and development; Cellular structures and their functions; Physiology of phyto-hormones functioning/ biosynthesis and mode of action; Growth analysis and its importance in vegetable production. Physiology of dormancy and germination—Physiology of dormancy and germination of vegetable seeds, tubers and bulbs; Role of auxins, gibberellilns, cyktokinins and abscissic acid; Application of synthetic PGRs including plant growth retardants and inhibitors for various purposes in vegetable crops; Role and mode of action of morphactins, antitranspirants, anti-auxin, ripening retardant and plant stimulants in vegetable crop production. Abiotic factors—Impact of light, temperature, photoperiod, carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases on growth, development of underground parts, flowering and sex expression in vegetable crops; Apical dominance. Fruit physiology—Physiology of fruit set, fruit development, fruit growth, flower and fruit drop; parthenocarpy in vegetable crops; phototropism, ethylene inhibitors, senescence and abscission; fruit ripening and physiological changes associated with ripening. Morphogenesis and tissue culture—Morphogenesis and tissue culture techniques in vegetable crops; Grafting techniques in different vegetable crops.
Practical: Preparation of plant growth regulator’s solutions and their application; Experiments in breaking and induction of dormancy by chemicals; Induction of parthenocarpy and fruit ripening; Application of plant growth substances for improving flower initiation, changing sex expression in cucurbits and checking flower and fruit drops and improving fruit set in solanaceous vegetables; Growth analysis techniques in vegetable crops; Grafting techniques in tomato, brinjal, cucumber and sweet pepper.
Principles of Vegetable Breeding
Content: Importance and history- Importance, history and evolutionary aspects of vegetable breeding and its variation from cereal crop breeding. Selection procedures- Techniques of selfing and crossing; Breeding systems and methods; Selection procedures and hybridization; Genetic architecture; Breeding for biotic stress (diseases, insect pests and nematode), abiotic stress (temperature, moisture and salt) resistance and quality improvement; Breeding for water use efficiency (WUE) and nutrients use efficiency (NUE). Heterosis breeding- Types, mechanisms and basis of heterosis, facilitating mechanisms like male sterility, self-incompatibility and sex forms. Mutation and Polyploidy breeding; Improvement of asexually propagated vegetable crops and vegetables suitable for protected environment. Ideotype breeding- Ideotype breeding; varietal release procedure; DUS testing in vegetable crops; Application of In-vitro and molecular techniques in vegetable improvement.
Practical: Floral biology and pollination behaviour of different vegetables; Techniques of selfing and crossing of different vegetables, viz., Cole crops, okra, cucurbits, tomato, eggplant, hot pepper, etc.; Breeding system and handling of filial generations of different vegetables; Exposure to biotechnological lab practices; Visit to breeding farms.
Breeding of Self Pollinated Vegetable Crops
Content: Origin, botany, taxonomy, wild relatives, cytogenetics and genetics, types of pollination and fertilization mechanism, sterility, breeding objectives, breeding methods (introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy), varieties and varietal characterization, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, breeding for protected environment and quality improvement, molecular markers and marker’s assisted breeding; QTLs, PPV and FR Act. Tuber crops: Potato. Fruit vegetables- Tomato, eggplant, hot pepper, sweet pepper and okra. Leguminous vegetables- Garden peas and cowpea. Leguminous vegetables: French bean, Indian bean, cluster bean and broad bean. Leafy vegetables- Lettuce and fenugreek.
Practical: Floral mechanisms favouring self and often cross pollination; Progeny testing and development of inbred lines; Selection of desirable plants from breeding population, observations and analysis of various qualitative and quantitative traits in germplasm, hybrids and segregating generations; Palynological studies, selfing and crossing techniques; Hybrid seed production of vegetable crops in bulk; Screening techniques for biotic and abiotic stress resistance in above mentioned crops; Molecular marker techniques to identify useful traits in the vegetable crops and special breeding techniques; Visit to breeding farms;
Breeding of Cross Pollinated Vegetable Crops
Content: Origin, botany, taxonomy, cytogenetics, genetics, types of pollination and fertilization, mechanism, sterility and incompatibility, breeding objectives, breeding methods (introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation, polyploidy), varieties and varietal characterization, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses, quality improvement, molecular markers and marker assisted breeding, and QTLs, PPV and FR act. Cucurbitaceous crops—Gourds, melons, cucumber, pumpkin and squashes. Cole crops—Cauliflower, cabbage, kohlrabi, broccoli and brussels sprouts. Root and bulb crops—Carrot, radish, turnip, beet root and onion. Tuber crops—Sweet potato, tapioca, taro and yam. Leafy vegetables—Beet leaf, spinach, amaranth and coriander.
Practical: Floral mechanisms favouring cross pollination; Development of inbred lines;
Selection of desirable plants from breeding population; Observations and analysis of various quantitative and qualitative traits in germplasm, hybrids and segregating generations; Induction of flowering, palynological studies, selfing and crossing techniques; Hybrid seed production of vegetable crops in bulk; Screening techniques for biotic and abiotic stress resistance in above mentioned crops; Demonstration of sib-mating and mixed population; Molecular marker techniques to identify useful traits in vegetable crops and special breeding techniques; Visit to breeding blocks.
Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops
Content: Scope and importance- Concept, scope and importance of protected cultivation of vegetable crops; Principles, design, orientation of structure, low and high cost polyhouses/ greenhouse structures. Types of protected structure- Classification and types of protected structures greenhouse/ polyhouses, plastic-non plastic low tunnels, plastic walk in tunnels, high roof tunnels with ventilation, insect proof net houses, shed net houses, rain shelters, NVP, climate control greenhouses, hydroponics and aeroponics; Soil and soilless media for bed preparation; Design and installation of drip irrigation and fertigation system. Abiotic factors- Effect of environmental factors and manipulation of temperature, light, carbon dioxide, humidity, etc. on growth and yield of different vegetables. Nursery raising- High tech vegetable nursery raising in protected structures using plugs and portrays, different media for growing nursery under protected cultivation; Nursery problems and management technologies including fertigation. Cultivation of crops- Regulation of flowering and fruiting in vegetable crops; Technology for raising tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and other vegetables in protected structures, including varieties and hybrids, training, pruning and staking in growing vegetables under protected structures. Solutions to problems- Problems of growing vegetables in protected structures and their remedies, physiological disorders, insect and disease management in protected structures; Use of protected structures for seed production; Economics of greenhouse crop production.
Practical: Study of various types of protected structure; Study of different methods to control temperature, carbon dioxide and light; Study of different types of growing media, training and pruning systems in greenhouse crops; Study of fertigation and nutrient management under protected structures; Study of insect pests and diseases in greenhouse and its control; Use of protected structures in hybrid seed production of vegetables; Economics of protected cultivation (Any one crop); Visit to established green/ polyhouses/ shade net houses in the region.
Seed Production of Vegetable Crops
Content: Introduction, history, propagation and reproduction—Introduction, definition of seed and its quality, seed morphology, development and maturation; Apomixis and fertilization; Modes of propagation and reproductive behaviour; Pollination mechanisms and sex forms in vegetables; History of vegetable seed production; Status and share of vegetable seeds in seed industry Agro-climate and methods of seed production—Agro-climate and its influence on quality seed production; Deterioration of crop varieties, genetical and agronomic principles of vegetable seed production; Methods of seed production, hybrid seeds and techniques of large scale hybrid seed production; Seed village concept. Seed multiplication and its quality maintenance—Seed multiplication ratios and replacement rates in vegetables; Generation system of seed multiplication; Maintenance and production of nucleus, breeder, foundation, certified/ truthful label seeds; Seed quality and mechanisms of genetic purity testing Seed harvesting, extraction and its processing—Maturity standards; Seed harvesting, curing and extraction; Seed processing, viz., cleaning, drying and treatment of seeds, seed health and quality enhancement, packaging and marketing; Principles of seed storage; Orthodox and recalcitrant seeds; Seed dormancy. Improved agro-techniques and field and seed standards—Improved agro-techniques; Field and seed standards in important solanaceous, leguminous and cucurbitaceous vegetables, cole crops, leafy vegetables, bulbous and root crops and okra; clonal propagation and multiplication in vegetative propagated crops; Seed plot technique and true potato seed production in potato.
Practical: Study of floral biology and pollination mechanisms in vegetables; Determination of modes of pollination; Field and seed standards; Use of pollination control mechanisms in hybrid seed production of important vegetables; Maturity standards and seed extraction methods; Seed sampling and testing; Visit to commercial seed production areas; Visit to seed processing plant; Visit to seed testing laboratories.
Production of Underutilized Vegetable Crops
Content: Importance and scope, botany and taxonomy, climate and soil requirement, commercial varieties/ hybrids, improved cultural practices, physiological disorders, harvesting and yield, plant protection measures and post harvest management of: Stem and bulb crops—Asparagus, leek and chinese chive. Cole and salad crops—Red cabbage, chinese cabbage, kale, sweet corn and baby corn. Leafy vegetables—Celery, parsley, indian spinach (poi), spinach, chenopods, chekurmanis and indigenous vegetables of regional importance. Gourds and melons—Sweet gourd, spine gourd, teasle gourd, round gourd, and little/ Ivy gourd, snake gourd, pointed gourd, kachri, long melon, snap melon and gherkin Yam and beans—Elephant foot yam, yam, yam bean, lima bean and winged bean.
Practical: Identification and botanical description of plants and varieties; Seed/ planting material; Production, lay out and method of planting; Important cultural operations; Identification of important pests and diseases and their control; Maturity standards and harvesting; Visit to local farms.
Systematics of Vegetable Crops
Content: Significance of systematic—Significance of systematics and crop diversity in vegetable crops; Principles of classification; different methods of classification; Salient features of international code of nomenclature of vegetable crops. Origin and evolution—Origin, history, evolution and distribution of vegetable crops. Botanical and morphological description—Botanical description of families, general and species covering various tropical, subtropical and temperate vegetables; Morphological keys to identify important families, floral biology, floral formula and diagram; Morphological description of all parts of vegetables. Cytology—Cytological level of various vegetable crops with descriptive keys. Molecular markers—Importance of molecular markers in evolution of vegetable crops; Molecular markers as an aid in characterization and taxonomy of vegetable crops.
Practical: Identification, description, classification and maintenance of vegetable species and varieties; Survey, collection of allied species and genera locally available; Preparation of keys to the species and varieties; Methods of preparation of herbarium and specimens.
Organic Vegetable Production
Content: Importance and principles—Importance, principles, perspective, concepts and components of organic farming in vegetable crops. Organic production of vegetables—Organic production of vegetable crops, viz., Solanaceous, Cucurbitaceous, Cole, root and tuber crops. Managing soil fertility—Managing soil fertility, mulching, raising green manure crops, weed management in organic farming system; Crop rotation in organic production; Processing and quality control of organic vegetable produce. Composting methods—Indigenous methods of composting, Panchyagavvya, Biodynamics preparations and their application; ITKs in organic vegetable farming; Role of botanicals and bio-control agents in the management of pests and diseases in vegetable crops. Certification and export—Techniques of natural vegetable farming, GAP and GMP certification of organic products; Export- opportunity and challenges.
Practical: Methods of preparation and use of compost, vermicompost, biofertilizers and biopesticides; Soil solarisation; Use of green manures; Waste management; Organic soil amendments in organic production of vegetable crops; Weed, pest and disease management in organic vegetable production; Visit to organic fields and marketing centres.
Production of Spice Crops
Content: Introduction and importance of spice crops- historical accent, present status (national and international), future prospects, botany and taxonomy, climatic and soil requirement, commercial cultivars/ hybrids, site selection, layout, sowing/ planting time and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirement, intercropping, mixed cropping, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, physiological disorders, harvesting, post-harvest management, plant protection measures, quality control and pharmaceutical significance of crops mentioned below: Fruit spices- Black pepper, small cardamom, large cardamom and allspice. Bud and kernel- Clove and nutmeg. Underground spices- Turmeric, ginger and garlic. Seed spices- Coriander, fenugreek, cumin, fennel, ajowain, dill and celery. Tree spices- Cinnamon, tamarind, garcinia and vanilla.
Practical: Identification of seeds and plants; Botanical description of plant; Preparation of spice herbarium; Propagation; Nursery raising; Field layout and method of planting; Cultural practices; Harvesting, drying, storage, packaging and processing; Value addition; Short term experiments on spice crops.
Processing of Vegetable Crops
Content: Present status—Present status and future prospects of vegetable preservation industry in India. Spoilage and biochemical changes—Spoilage of fresh and processed vegetable produce; biochemical changes and enzymes associated with spoilage of vegetable produce; Principal spoilage organisms, food poisoning and their control measures; Role of microorganisms in food preservation. Processing equipments—Raw material for processing; Primary and minimal processing; Processing equipments; Layout and establishment of processing industry; FPO licence; Importance of hygiene; Plant sanitation. Quality control—Quality assurance and quality control, TQM, GMP; Food standards- FPO, PFA, etc.; Food laws and regulations; Food safety- hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP); Labeling and labeling act and nutrition labelingValue addition—Major value added vegetable products; Utilization of byproducts of vegetable processing industry; Management of processing industry waste; Investment analysis; Principles and methods of sensory evaluation of fresh and processed vegetables.
Practical: Study of machinery and equipments used in processing of vegetable produce; Chemical analysis for nutritive value of fresh and processed vegetable; Study of different types of spoilage in fresh as well as processed vegetable produce; Classification and identification of spoilage organisms; Study of biochemical changes and enzymes associated with spoilage; Laboratory examination of vegetable products; Sensory evaluation of fresh and processed vegetables; Study of food standards- National, international, CODEX Alimentarius; Visit to processing units to study the layout, hygiene, sanitation and waste management.
Postharvest Management of Vegetable Crops
Content: Importance and scope—Importance and scope of post-harvest management of Vegetables. Maturity indices and biochemistry—Maturity indices and standards for different vegetables; Methods of maturity determination; Biochemistry of maturity and ripening; Enzymatic and textural changes; Ethylene evolution and ethylene management; Respiration and transpiration along with their regulation methods. Harvesting and losses factors—Harvesting tools and practices for specific market requirement; Postharvest physical and biochemical changes; Preharvest practices and other factors affecting postharvest losses Packing house operations—Packing house operations; Commodity pretreatments chemicals, wax coating, precooling and irradiation; Packaging of vegetables, prevention from infestation, management of postharvest diseases and principles of transportation. Methods of storage—Ventilated, refrigerated, modified atmosphere and controlled atmosphere storage, hypobaric storage and cold storage; Zero-energy cool chamber, storage disorders like chilling injury in vegetables.
Practical: Studies on stages and maturing indices; Ripening of commercially important vegetable crops; Studies of harvesting, pre-cooling, pre-treatments, physiological disorders- chilling injury; Improved packaging; Use of chemicals for ripening and enhancing shelf life of vegetables; Physiological loss in weight, estimation of transpiration, respiration rate and ethylene release; Storage of important vegetables; Cold chain management; Visit to commercial packinghouse, cold storage and control atmosphere storage.
Horticultural Sciences – Floriculture and Landscaping (FLS) (M.Sc.)
Systematics of Ornamental Plants
Content: Nomenclature: History, origin, hotspots, classification and nomenclature systems. International systems: International Code, Treaties, International and National Organisations, Biodiversity Act, Identification features, descriptors. Red Book, Registration (NBPGR, PPVFRA, NBA). Families: Description and families and important genera Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Orchidaceae, Aracaceae, Liliacae. Acanthaceae, Palmaceae, Asparagaceae, Malvaceae, Musaceae, Oleaceae, Iridaceae. Molecular techniques in modern systematics.
Practical: Different nomenclature systems of plants (2); Floral biology and taxonomic description of rose, chrysanthemum, orchids, carnation, gerbera, anthurium, marigold, tuberose, Jasmine, China aster, lilium, gypsophila (6); Cyropreservation and tissue culture repository (4); Molecular techniques (4).
Breeding of Ornamental Crops
Content: Principles of plant breeding: Principles of plant breeding; Origin, evolution, distribution, introduction, domestication and conservation of ornamental crops. Intellectual Property and Plant Breeders Rights: Introduction and initiatives in IPR and PBR of ornamental crops. Genetic mechanisms and inheritance: Breeding objectives, reproductive barriers (Male sterility, incompatibility) in major ornamental crops. Inheritance of important traits, Genetic mechanisms associated with flower colour, size, form, doubleness, fragrance, plant architecture, post-harvest life, abiotic and biotic stress tolerance/ resistance. Breeding methods: Breeding methods suitable for sexually, asexually propagated flower crops, self and cross pollinated crops- pedigree selection, backcross, clonal selection, polyploidy and mutation breeding, heterosis and F1 hybrids. Role of biotechnology: Role of biotechnology in improvement of flower crops including somaclonal variation, in-vitro mutagenesis, in-vitro selection, genetic engineering, molecular markers, etc. Crops: Rose, chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, gladiolus, orchids, anthurium, lilium, marigold, jasmine, tuberose, dahlia, gaillardia, crossandra, aster, etc., Flowering annuals: petunia, zinnia, snapdragon, stock, pansy, calendula, balsam, dianthus, etc. Important ornamental crops like aglaonema, diffenbachia, hibiscus, bougainvillea, kalanchoe, etc.
Practical: Floral biology of important ornamental crops (2); Cytology and cytogenetics (2); Selfing and crossing procedures for important ornamental crops (2); Evaluation of hybrid progenies (2); Induction of mutants through physical and chemical mutagens (2); In-vitro selection, genetic engineering (2); Induction of polyploidy (2); DUS testing (2).
Commercial Production of Cut Flowers
Content: Production management: Scope and scenario: National and International scenario, importance and scope of cut flower trade, constraints for cut flower production in India. Growing environment: Soli analysis, soil health card, Growing environment, open cultivation, protected cultivation, soil/ media requirements, land preparation, planting methods, influence of light, temperature, moisture, humidity and microclimate management on growth and flowering. Crop management: Commercial Flower production – Commercial varieties, water and nutrient management, fertigation, weed management, crop specific practices, ratooning, training and pruning, pinching, deshooting, bending, desuckering, disbudding. Use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, IPM and IDM. Flower regulation: Flower forcing and year round/ offseason flower production through physiological interventions, chemical regulation, environmental manipulation. Post harvest management: Cut flower standards and grades, harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling, Methods of delaying flower opening, Pre-cooling, pulsing, packing, storage and transportation. Marketing: Marketing, export potential, institutional support, Agri Export Zones, 100% Export Oriented units, Crop Insurance. Crops: Rose, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, tuberose, carnation, gerbera, orchids, lilium, anthurium, china aster, alstroemeria, bird of paradise, heliconia, alpinia, ornamental ginger, dahlia, gypsophila, solidago, limonium, stock, cut greens and fillers.
Practical: Identification of varieties (1); Propagation (2); Microclimate management (2); Training and pruning techniques (1); Pinching, deshooting, disbudding, desuckering (1); Practices in manuring, drip and fertigation, foliar nutrition, growth regulator application (2); Harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling, cold chain (2); Economics, Project preparation for regionally important cut flowers, crop specific guidelines for project financing (NHB guidelines) (2); Visit to commercial cut flower units (2); Case studies (1).
Commercial Production of Loose Flowers
Content: Production management: Scope and scenario: Scope, scenario and importance of loose flowers, constraints and opportunities in loose flower production. Growing environment: Nursery management, pro-tray nursery under shade nets, soil and climate requirement, Field preparation, systems of planting. Crop management: Soli analysis, soil health card, water and nutrient management, weed management, training and pruning, special horticultural practices such as pinching and disbudding, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, INM, IPM and IDM. Crop regulation: Flower forcing and year round flowering, production for special occasions through physiological interventions, chemical regulation. Post harvest management: Harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling and grading, pre-cooling, packaging and storage. Marketing: Important local markets, Export potential, transportation and marketing, APMC and online trading, institutional support, Crop Insurance. Crops: Rose, jasmine, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, china aster, crossandra, gaillardia, spider lily, hibiscus, nerium, barleria, celosia, gomphrena, Madar (Calotropis gigantea), nyctanthes (Harsingar), tabernaemontana (Chandni), lotus, water lily, michelia (Champa), gardenia, ixora and balsam.
Practical: Identification of species and varieties (1); Propagation and nursery management (1); Training and pruning techniques (1); Fertigation, foliar nutrition, growth regulator application (2); Crop protection (2); Pinching, disbudding, staking, harvesting techniques (1); Post-harvest handling, storage and cold chain (2); Project preparation for regionally important commercial loose flowers. crop specific guidelines for project financing (NHB guidelines) (2); Cost Economics (2); Exposure Visits to fields (2).
Ornamental Gardening And Landscaping
Content: Gardens and components: Styles and types of gardens: Historical background of gardening, Importance and scope of ornamental gardening, styles and types of gardens, formal and informal style gardens. English, Mughal, Japanese, Persian, Spanish, Italian, French, Hindu and Buddhist gardens. Garden components: Garden components (living and non-living): arboretum, shrubbery, fernery, palmatum, arches and pergolas, edges and hedges, climbers and creepers, cacti and succulents, herbs, annuals, flower borders and beds, ground covers, carpet beds, colour wheels, clock garden, bamboo groves, bonsai; Non -living components likepath, garden gate, fencing, paving and garden features like fountains, garden seating, swings, lanterns, basins, bird baths, sculptures, waterfalls, bridge, steps, ramps, Lawn -genera and species, establishment and maintenance. Specialized gardens: Specialised gardens such as vertical garden, roof garden, terrace garden, water garden, sunken garden, rock garden, shade garden, temple garden, sacred gardens (with emphasis on native plants), Zen garden. Landscape planning: Principles and elements of landscaping: Basic drawing skills, use of drawing instruments garden symbols, steps in preparation of garden design, programmes phase, design, phase, etc. Elements and principles of landscape design. Organization of spaces, visual aspects of plan arrangement- view, vista and axis. Principles of circulation, site analysis and landscape, water requirement, use of recycled water. Landscaping for different situations: Urban landscaping, Landscaping for specific situations such as residential, farm houses, institutions, corporate sector, industries, hospitals, roadsides, traffic islands, Children parks, public parks, xeriscaping, airports, railway station and tracks, river banks and dam sites and IT/ SEZ parks. Bio-aesthetic planning, eco-tourism, theme parks, indoor gardening, therapeutic gardening.
Practical: Graphic language and symbols in landscaping, study of drawing instruments, viz., ‘T’ square, setsquare, drawing board, etc. (1); Identification of various types of ornamental plants for different gardens and occasions (1); Preparation of land, planning, layout and planting, deviations from landscape principles (1); Case study (1); Site analysis, interpretation of map of different sites, use of GIS for selection (1); Enlargement from blue print. Landscape design layout and drafting on paper as per the scale (2); Preparation of garden models for home gardens, farm houses, industrial gardens, institutional gardens, corporate, avenue planting, practices in planning and planting of special types of gardens.(3); Burlapping, lawn making, planting of edges, hedges, topiary, herbaceous and shrubbery borders (2); Project preparation on landscaping for different situations, creation of formal and informal gardens (2); Visit to parks and botanical gardens (2).
Indoor Plants and Interiorscaping
Content: Scope, principles and operations: Importance and scope: Importance and scope of indoor plants and Interiorscaping, Indoor plants and Indoor air quality. Classification and principles: Factors affecting growth, development and flowering of Indoor plants. Classification of indoor plants based on light, temperature, humidity and pollution tolerance, Description and cultivation of various indoor plants. Principles of Interiorscaping, Role in pollution mitigation. Cultural operations: Containers and substrates, preparation of growing media, propagation, training, grooming, nutrition, management of disease, pests and weeds. Maintenance of plants including repotting, foliar nutrition, light exposure and plant rotation. Media standards, Nursery and Export standards for potted plants, Nursery standards. Presentations and marketing: Special gardens: Special gardens including miniature gardens and plant stand. Presentations like dish, terrarium, bottle gardens, hanging baskets, window boxes and Bonsai. Vertical gardens: Vertical gardens- History, planting material, structures, containers, substrate, water and nutrient management, supplemental lighting. Marketing: Marketing channels, Business models including plant rentals.
Practical: Identification of important house plants (2); Media and containers (1); Propagation (1); Cultural operations, maintenance and economics of indoor plants (2); Models for Interiorscaping (2); Familiarization with different indoor gardens (2); Making of terrariums, bottle garden, dish garden and their economics (2); Making of vertical gardens and economics (2); Exposure visits (2).
Nursery Management for Ornamental Plants
Content: Nursery Industry and Propagation: Scenario of nursery industry and sexual propagation: Importance and present scenario and status of nursery industry in India and in the world, life cycles in plants, Propagation methods, Factors influencing seed germination of flower crops, dormancy, seed quality, packing, storage, certification, testing. Hormonal regulation of germination and seedling growth. Asexual propagation: Methods of asexual propagation, rooting of soft and hard wood cutting under mist. Role of Plant growth regulators. Physiological, anatomical and biochemical aspects of root induction in cuttings. Layering – principles and methods, budding and grafting – selection of elite mother plants. Stock, scion and inter stock, relationship – Incompatibility. Micropropagation: Micro-propagation – principles and concepts, commercial exploitation in flower crops. Techniques – in-vitro clonal propagation, direct organogenesis, embryogenesis, micrografting, meristem culture. Hardening, packing and transport of micro-propagules. Nursery Management: Growing structures: Growing structures like mist chambers, tunnels, lath house, net house, growing media types, soil less culture and containers. Automation in nursery management. Sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues: Nursery – types, components, planning and layout. Nursery management practices for healthy propagule production. Nursery Act, PPV&FR act and Quarantine system in India. Important quarantine pests and diseases, sanitary and phyto-sanitary issues threats to nursery Industry. Standards: Nursery standards, Hi-tech nurseries, garden centers.
Practical: Anatomical studies in rooting of cutting and graft union (2); Identification and production of plug plants, seedlings and saplings (2); Preparation of growing media and use of PGRs (2); Practice of propagation through specialized structures cuttings, layering, budding and grafting (2); Case studies (2); Micropropagation of ornamental crops and hardening (3); Visit to tissue culture labs and nurseries (2); Economics (1).
Content: Turf industry and turf grasses: Prospects and basic requirement: History, present status and prospects of turf industry; basic requirements, site selection and evaluation, concepts of quality of soil pertaining to turf grass establishment, criteria for evaluation of turf quality. Types of turf grasses: Types, species, varieties, important breeders, grasses for different locations and conditions and their compatible groupings as per climatic conditions; Turfing for roof gardens. Operations and management: Preparatory operations; Turf establishment methods such as seeding, sprigging/ dibbling, plugging, sodding/ turfing, turf plastering, instant turfing (portable), hydroseeding, synthetic turfing. Turf management – Irrigation, drainage, nutrition, special practices like aerating, rolling, coring, dethatching, verticutting, soil top dressing, use of plant growth regulators and micronutrients, Turf mowing – mowing equipments, techniques to minimize wear and compaction, weed control, biotic and abiotic stress management in turfs, standards for turf, use of recycled water, etc. Turf for different grounds: Making of different sports arenas: Establishment and maintenance of turfs for playgrounds, viz., golf, football, hockey, cricket, tennis, rugby, residential and public parks, turfing of Govt. and Corporate office gardens, event specific preparation, turf colourants. Automation: Exposure to different tools, gadgets, machinery used in turf industry.
Practical: Identification of turf grasses and turf machinery (1); Soil preparation, turf establishment methods, provision of drainage (2); Layout of macro and micro irrigation systems (1); Water and nutrient management (2); Special practices – mowing, raking, rolling, soil top dressing, weed management (2); Biotic and abiotic stress management (2); Project preparation for turf establishment (2); Visit to parks, model cricket grounds and golf courses, airports, corporates, Govt. organizations (2); Rejuvenation of lawns (1); Turf economics (1).
Value Addition in Floriculture
Content: Value added products: Scope and scenario: Scope and prospects of value addition, National and global scenario, production and exports. Types of value added products, techniques of value addition including tinting. Value addition in loose flowers: Value addition in loose flowers and product development- Gulkhand, floral tea, rose oil, rose water, Pankhuri, floral dyes, rose sherbet, floral ice creams, sweets, etc. Floral Arrangements: Selection of containers and accessories for floral products and decorations. Flower arrangement, styles, ikebana schools (ikenobo, ohara, sogetsu, etc.), Ikebana- moribana, nagiere, contemporary style. Dry flowers: Dry flowers– Identification and selection of flowers and plant parts; Raw material procurement, preservation and storage; tips for collecting dry flower making, selection of stages for picking of flowers for drying, Techniques in dry flower making – Drying, glycerising, bleaching, dyeing, embedding, pressing; Accessories; Designing and arrangement – dry flower baskets, bouquets, pot-pourri, wall hangings, button holes, greeting cards, wreaths; petal embedded handmade papers, Packaging and storage. Post drying management including moisture, pests and molds. Extraction of value added products: Essential oils: Essential oils; Selection of species and varieties (including non-conventional species), extraction methods, Packing and storage, Aromatherapy. Pigments and nutraceuticals: Types of pigments, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophyll, betalains; Significance of natural pigments as nutraceuticals, Extraction methods and applications in food, pharmaceutical and poultry industries. Dying: Synthetic and Natural dyes, dying techniques, colour retention,
Practical: Practices in preparation of different type of flower arrangements including bouquets, button-holes, flower baskets, corsages, floral wreaths, garlands with fresh flowers (4); Techniques in flower arrangement and floral decoration (2); Identification of plants for dry flower making (2); Practices in dry flower making; Preparation of dry flower baskets, bouquets, potpourri, wall hangings, button holes, greeting cards, wreaths, etc. (2); Essential oil extraction units (1); Extraction of pigments (2); Visit to dry flower units (2); Economics of value added products (1).
Protected Cultivation of Flower Crops
Content: Principles and types: Prospects and types of protected structures: Prospects of protected floriculture in India; Types of protected structures – Glasshouse/ polyhouse, shadenet houses, mist chambers, lath houses, orchidarium, fernery, rain shelters, etc. Principles and design: Principles of designing and erection of protected structures; Low cost/ Medium cost/ High cost structures; Location specific designs; Structural components; Suitable flower and foliage plants for protected cultivation. Growing environment: Control of environment: Microclimate management and manipulation of temperature, light, humidity, air and CO2; Heating and cooling systems, ventilation, naturally ventilated greenhouses, fan and pad cooled greenhouses, light regulation, water harvesting. Intercultural operations and crop regulation: Containers and substrates, media, soil decontamination, layout of drip and fertigation system, water and nutrient management, IPM and IDM, Crop regulation by chemical methods and special horticultural practices (pinching, disbudding, deshooting, deblossoming, etc.); Staking and netting, Photoperiod regulation. Automation and standards: Automation in greenhouses, sensors, solar greenhouses and retractable greenhouses, GAP/ Flower labels, Export standards, EXIM policy, APEDA regulations for export, Non-tariff barriers. Crops: Rose, Chrysanthemum, Carnation, Gerbera, Orchids, Anthuriums, Lilium, Limonium, Lisianthus, heliconia, Cala lily, Alstromeria, etc.
Practical: Study of various protected structures (1); Design, layout and erection of different types of structures (2); Practices in preparatory operations, growing media, soil decontamination techniques (2); Microclimate management (2); Practices in drip and fertigation techniques, special horticultural practices (2); Determination of harvest indices and harvesting methods (1); Postharvest handling, packing methods (1); Economics of cultivation, Project preparation (2); Project Financing guidelines (1); Visit to commercial greenhouses (2).
CAD for Landscaping
Content: CAD: CAD basics and applications: Principles of integrating the architecture and landscaping, Exposure to CAD (Computer Aided Designing) – Applications of CAD in landscape garden designing, 2D drawing by AUTOCAD, Creating legends for plant and non-plant components, Basics of Photoshop software in garden designing. 2D drawing: 2D drawing methods, AUTOCAD Basics, Coordinate systems in AUTOCAD LT 2007, Point picking methods, Toolbars and Icons, File handling functions, Modifying tools, Modifying comments, Isometric drawings, Drafting objects. Using patterns in AUTOCAD drawing, Dimension concepts, Hyperlinking, Script making, Using productivity tools, e-transmit file, making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor garden by AUTOCAD 2D Drawing techniques, Drawing web format design, Making layout. ARCHICAD: 3D drawing: 3D drawing methods, 3D drawing by ARCHICAD, 3D drawing by 3D MAX software, ARCHICAD file system, Tools and Infobox, modification tools, structural elements, GDL objects (Grid Dimensional Linking), Creation of garden components through ARCHICAD. Dimensioning and visualization: ARCHICAD organization tools, Dimensioning and detailing of designs, Landscape designing softwares and CD ROM for ornamental plant material (TRES, HIMFLORA, CAPSSA, etc), Attribute settings of components, Visualization tools for landscape preview, Data management, plotting and accessories for designing, Inserting picture using photoshop, Making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor gardens.
Practical: Practices in point picking methods, Using tool bars and icons, Using modifying tools and modifying comments (4); Isometric drawings, Using productivity tools (2); Drawing designs by AUTOCAD for home garden, institutional garden and special types of garden (4); Using tools and info-box for 3D drawing, Creation of garden components with ARCHICAD (4); Organization, dimensioning, detailing and visualization tools with ARCHICAD (4); Using Photoshop package for 3D picture insertion (2); Drawing designs with ARCHICAD for home garden, interior garden designing, IT parks, Corporates, Theme parks and Ecotourism spots (6); Exposure visits (4).
Seed Production in Flower Crops
Content: Seed Industry: Scenario of Seed Industry: Scope, scenario and importance of seed production in flower crops. Constraints in flower seed production. Marketing and economics of flower seeds. Hybrid Seed Production: Seed production-Methods: Methods of seed production, agrotechniques for production of nucleus, breeder and certified seeds. Harvesting, seed processing, seed priming, seed chain, packaging and storage. Population improvement: Mass selection, progeny selection. Use of incompatibility and male sterility, maintenance of variety and seed production in flower crops. F1 hybrids: F1 hybrid seed production advantages, steps involved in hybrid seed production, pollination behaviour and isolation, pollination management methods in production of F1/ hybrids in different flower crops. Regulations: Seed certification and standards: Seed certification, Seed standards, seed act, plant breeders rights and farmers’ rights, Bio safety, handling of transgenic seed crops, importing of seeds and OGL, trade barriers in seed business, sanitary and phytosanitaty issues, custom clearance and quarantine. Crops: Marigold, petunia, antirrhinum, zinnia, pansy, lupin, calendula, phlox, vinca, dianthus, sunflower, annual chrysanthemum, poppy, corn flower, rice flower.
Practical: Seed production of open pollinated varieties (2); Seed production of cross pollinated varieties (2); Steps involved in hybrid seed production (2); Hybrid seed production in different flower crops like marigold, petunia, antirrhinum, zinnia, pansy, lupin, calendula, phlox, vinca, dianthus, sunflower, annual chrysanthemum, etc. (6); Visit to seed industry (3); Visit to quarantine facility (1).
Horticultural Sciences – Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops (PSM) (M.Sc.)
Production of Plantation Crops
Content: Importance of Plantation Crops: Role of plantation crops: Role of plantation crops in national economy, area-production statistics at national and international level, classification, clean development mechanism and carbon sequestration potential of plantation crops. Export potential: Export potential, problems and prospects and IPR issues in plantation crops. Promotional programmes: Role of commodity boards and directorates in the development programmes of plantation crops. Production Technology: Varietal wealth: Botany, taxonomy, species, cultivars and improved varieties in plantation crops. Unit 2: Propagation and nursery management: Plant multiplication including in-vitro multiplication, nursery techniques and nursery management in plantation crops. Agro techniques: Systems of cultivation, cropping systems, multitier cropping, climate and soil requirements, systems of planting, high density planting, nutritional requirements, water requirements, fertigation, moisture conservation, role of growth regulators, macro and micro nutrients, nutrient deficiency symptoms, physiological disorders, shade regulation, weed management, training and pruning, crop regulation, plant protection, management of drought, precision farming. Harvest and Post harvest management Maturity indices and harvest: Maturity indices, harvesting methods, harvesting seasons and mechanized harvesting in plantation crops. Post harvest management: Post harvest handling including primary processing, grading, packaging, storage and benefit cost analysis of plantation crops. Crops: Coconut, Arecanut, Oilpalm, Cashew, Coffee, Tea, Cocoa, Rubber, Palmyrah, Betel vine.
Practical: Description of botanical and varietal features; Selection of mother palms and seedlings; Nursery techniques; Soil and water conservation measures; Nutrient deficiency symptoms; Manuring practices; Pruning and training methods; Maturity standards; Harvesting; Project preparation for establishing plantations; GAP in plantation crops; Exposure visits to commercial plantations, research institutes.
Production of Spice Crops
Content: Importance of spice crops: Role of Spice crops: Introduction, importance of spice crops, pharmaceutical significance, historical accent, present status – national and international, future prospects, role of Spices board and other development agencies. Classification of spice crops: Major spices, minor spices, seed spices, tree spices, herbal spices. Production Technology: Varietal wealth: Botany and taxonomy, species, cultivars, commercial varieties/ hybrids in spice crops. Propagation and nursery management: Seed, vegetative and micropropagation methods, nursery techniques and nursery management practices. Agro techniques: Climatic and soil requirements, site selection, layout, sowing/ planting times and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercropping, mixed cropping, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, plant protection, precision farming, physiological disorders, protected cultivation. Harvest and Post harvest management: Maturity indices and harvest: Maturity indices, harvesting methods, harvesting seasons, mechanized harvesting. Post harvest management: Post harvest management including primary processing, grading, packaging and storage, GMP in major spice crops. Crops: Black pepper, small and large Cardamom, Turmeric, Ginger, Garlic, Coriander, Fenugreek, Cumin, Fennel, Ajwain, Saffron, Vanilla, Nutmeg, Clove, Cinnamon, Allspice, Tamarind, Garcinia.
Practical: Identification of seeds and plants; Botanical description of plant; Varietal features; Planting material production; Field layout and method of planting; Cultural practices; Harvest maturity, harvesting; Drying, storage, packaging; Primary processing; GAP in spice crops; GMP in spice crops; Short term experiments on spice crops; Exposure visits to spice farms, research institutes.
Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Importance of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops: Classification of medicinal and aromatic crops: Importance of medicinal plants, Importance of aromatic plants, Role in national economy, utility sectors of medicinal and aromatic crops, classification of medicinal and aromatic crops, role of institutions, Medicinal Plant Board and NGO’s in research and development of medicinal and aromatic crops. Medicinal and plant based industry: Indian system of medicine, traditional systems of medicine, tribal medicine, medicinal industry, source of medicinal plants, area, production, export and import of major crops, problems, prospects and challenges, IPR issues. Aromatic plant based industry: Essential oils, classification, physical and chemical properties and storage of essential oils. Indian perfumery industry, area, production, export and import status of major aromatic crops, history and advancements, problems, prospects and challenges, IPR issues. Production technology of medicinal and aromatic crops: Varietal wealth: Botany and taxonomy, species, cultivars, commercial varieties/ hybrids in medicinal and aromatic crops. Propagation and nursery management: Seed, vegetative and micropropagation methods, nursery techniques and nursery management practices. Agro techniques: Climatic and soil requirements, site selection, layout, sowing/ planting times and methods, seed rate and seed treatment, nutritional and irrigation requirements, intercropping, mixed cropping, intercultural operations, weed control, mulching, plant protection. Harvest and Post harvest management: Maturity indices and harvest: Maturity indices, harvesting methods, harvesting seasons in medicinal and aromatic crops. Post harvest management: Post harvest management including primary processing, extraction, grading, packaging and storage, GMP in medicinal and aromatic crops. Crops: Medicinal crops: Senna, periwinkle, medicinal coleus, aswagandha, glory lily, sarpagandha, Dioscorea sp., Aloe vera, Andrographis paniculata, Digitalis, medicinal solanum, isabgol, opium poppy, safedmusli, Stevia rebaudiana, Mucuna pruriens, Piper longum, Plumbago zeylanica. Aromatic crops: Palmarosa, lemongrass, citronella, vetiver, mentha, patchouli, sweet flag, jasmine, geranium, artemisia, lavender, Ocimum sp., eucalyptus, sandal.
Practical: Description of botanical and varietal features; Nursery techniques; Lay out and planting; Manuring practices; Maturity standards; Harvesting; Primary processing; Extraction of oils; Herbarium preparation; Project preparation for establishing herbal gardens; GAP in medicinal and aromatic crops; GMP in medicinal and aromatic crops; Exposure visits to institutes, herbal gardens and industries.
Breeding of Plantation and Spice Crops
Content: Genetic diversity: Species and cultivar diversity: Floral and reproductive biology, cytogenetics, male sterility, incompatibility, wild and cultivated species, popular cultivars. Germplasm evaluation: Survey, collection, conservation and evaluation of germplasm. Crop improvement: Breeding objectives: Breeding objectives/ goals on the basis of yield, quality, stress tolerance, adaptation. Breeding methods: Approaches for crop improvement, introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploidy breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses. Breeding achievements and future thrusts: Breeding achievements: Breeding achievements in terms of released varieties, parentage, salient features. Future thrusts: Molecular breeding and biotechnological approaches, marker-assisted selection, bioinformatics, breeding for climate resilience Crops. Plantation crops: Coconut, Arecanut, Cashew, Cocoa, Rubber, Oil palm, Coffee, Tea, Palmyrah, Betel vine. Spice crops: Black pepper, small and large cardamom, Ginger, Turmeric, Fenugreek, Coriander, Fennel, Cumin, Ajwain, Garlic, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Clove, All spice, Garcinia, Tamarind.
Practical: Characterization and evaluation of germplasm; Floral biology, anthesis; pollen behaviour, fruit set; Practices in hybridization, selfing and crossing techniques; Polyploidy breeding; Mutation breeding; Induction of somaclonal variation and screening the variants; Evaluation of biometrical traits and quality traits; Salient features of improved varieties and cultivars; Screening for biotic and abiotic stresses; Bioinformatics; Exposure visits to research institutes for plantation and spice crops.
Breeding of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Genetic diversity: Species and cultivar diversity: Floral and reproductive biology, cytogenetics, male sterility, incompatibility, wild and cultivated species, popular cultivars. Germplasm evaluation: Survey, collection, conservation and evaluation of germplasm, IPR issues. Crop improvement: Breeding objectives: Breeding problems in medicinal and aromatic crops. Genetics of active principles, breeding objectives/ goals on the basis of yield, quality, stress tolerance, adaptation. Breeding methods: Approaches for crop improvement, introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploidy breeding, improvement of quality traits, resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses. Breeding achievements and future thrusts: Breeding achievements: Breeding achievements in terms of released varieties, parentage, salient features. Future thrusts: Molecular breeding and biotechnological approaches, marker-assisted selection, bioinformatics, breeding for climate resilience. Crops: Medicinal crops: Cassia angustifolia, Catharanthus roseus, Gloriosa superba, Coleus forskohlii, Stevia rebaudiana, Withania somnifera, Papaver somniferum, Plantago ovata, Chlorophytum sp., Rauvolfia serpentina, Aloe vera, Piper longum, Plumbago zeylanica. Aromatic crops: Mint, geranium, patchouli, lemon grass, palmarosa, citronella, vetiver, Artemisia, ocimum, lavender, Kaempferia galanga, eucalyptus.
Practical: Description of botanical features; Cataloguing of cultivars, varieties and species in medicinal and aromatic crops; Floral biology; Selfing and crossing; Evaluation of hybrid progenies; Induction of economic mutants; High alkaloid and high essential oil mutants; Evolution of mutants through physical and chemical mutagens; Introduction of polyploidy; Screening of plants for biotic and abiotic stress; In-vitro breeding in medicinal and aromatic crops.
Systematics of Plantation and Spice Crops
Content: Origin and evolution: Centre of origin: Centre of origin, distribution, taxonomical status, phylogeny. Systematics: Botany, cytology, ploidy status, sex forms, flowering and pollination biology, cytogenetics. Diversity: Species and cultivar diversity: Wild and related species, cultivars. Germplasm: Indigenous and exotic germplasm. Cataloguing: Descriptors: Biovarsity/ NBPGR descriptors and their salient features. DUS guidelines: DUS guidelines, molecular aspects of systematics. Crops: Plantation crops: Coconut, Arecanut, Oil Palm, Tea, Coffee, Cocoa, Cashew, Rubber, Betel Vine B. Spice crops: Black Pepper, Cardamom, Ginger, Turmeric, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Clove, Vanilla, Coriander, Fennel, Cumin, Fenugreek, Garlic.
Practical: Genus, species and cultivar features of various plantation and spice crops; Characterization based on descriptors; Characterization based on DUS guidelines; Study of sex forms and floral biology; Study of molecular markers; Exposure visits to national institutes including NBPGR.
Systematics of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Origin and evolution: Centre of origin: Centre of origin, distribution, taxonomical status, phylogeny, chemotaxonomy. Systematics: Botany, cytology, ploidy status, sex forms, flowering and pollination biology, cytogenetics. Diversity: Species and cultivar diversity: Wild and related species, cultivars. Germplasm: Indigenous and exotic germplasm. Cataloguing: Descriptors: Biovarsity/ NBPGR descriptors and their salient features. DUS guidelines: DUS guidelines, molecular aspects of systematics. Crops: Medicinal crops: Opium poppy, Isabgol, Aswagandha, Senna, Medicinal coleus,Glory Lily, Periwinkle, Sarpagandha, Long Pepper, Stevia, Safed musli, Plumbago zeylanica. Aromatic crops: Lemongrass, Citronella, Palmarosa, Vetiver, Mint, Patcholi, Geranium, Ocimum, Rosemary, Lavender, Kaempferia galanga, Eucalyptus.
Practical: Genus, species and cultivar features of various medicinal and aromatic crops; Characterization based on descriptors; Characterization based on DUS guidelines; Study of sex forms and floral biology; Study of molecular markers; Exposure visits to national institutes including NBPGR.
Underexploited Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Content: Importance and status: Importance and Uses: Introduction, importance, economic parts used, traditional uses. Status and future prospects: Present status, origin, distribution and future prospects of under exploited PSMAs. Production technology: Propagation and varieties: Propagation and nursery techniques, species varieties. Agro techniques: Climatic and soil requirements, planting and after care, weed and water management, manuring, plant protection. Harvest and post harvest management: Harvest indices: Maturity indices, harvesting time, techniques, crop duration. Post harvest management: Primary processing, extraction and value addition, storage, active ingredients. Crops: Plantation crops: Wattle, minor species of Areca, Coffea, Hevea. Spice crops: Illicium verum, Myristica malabarica, M. beddomei, Cinnamomum, tamala, malabatrum, Xanthoxylum sp., Curcuma caesia, C. aromatica, C. zedoaria, C. amada, Anethum graveolense, Hyssopus officinalis, Eringiumfoetidum, Pimpinella anisum, Artocarpus lacucha. Medicinal plants: Flacourtia montana, Plectranthus aromaticus, Adhatoda sp. Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cordifolia, Gymnema sylvestre, Psoralea corylifolia, Eclipta alba, Aristalochia indica, Morinda citrifolia, Caesalpinia sappan, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Phyllanthus amarus, Strychnos nuxvomica, S. indicum, S. xanthocarpum, Aegle marmelos, Alpinia sp., Hibiscus subdariffa, Anthocephalus kadamba, Costus sp., Kaempferia rotunda, K. parviflora, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Nardostachis jatamansi,Valeriana officinalis, Swertia chiraita, Aconitum sp., Salvia officinalis, Centella asiatica, Bixa orellana, Bacopa monnieri D. Aromatic plants: Bursera sp., Commiphora wightii, Ocimum kilimandjaricum, Melaleuca, Michaelia champaka, Rosa damascena, Cananga odorata, marjoram, chamomile.
Practical: Botanical characteristics of species and varieties of various underexploited plantation, spice, medicinal and aromatic plants; Economic parts and their products; Propagation and nursery techniques; Harvesting and primary processing of under utilised PSMAs; Exposure visits to institutes, botanical gardens, herbal gardens and distillation units.
Growth and Development of Plantation, Spice, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Growth, development, assimilate partitioning and plant bio regulators: Stages of growth: Growth and development, definitions, components, photosynthetic productivity, different stages of growth, growth curves, growth analysis, morphogenesis in PSMAs. Growth pattern: in annual, semi-perennial and perennial crops, growth dimorphism, environmental impact on growth and development: effect of light, temperature, photoperiod. Assimilate partitioning: Assimilate partitioning during growth and development, influence of water and mineral nutrition. Canopy management: Canopy management: Canopy management for conventional and high density planting pruning, training, chemicals, crop regulation for year round and off season production in PSMAs. Plant bio regulators: plant bio regulators- auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, inhibitors and retardants, basic functions, biosynthesis and role in crop growth and development. Block 3: Developmental physiology and biochemistry Vegetative phase: Developmental physiology and biochemistry during dormancy, bud break, juvenility. Flowering and fruit set Physiology of flowering, photoperiodism, vernalisation, effect of temperature, heat units, thermoperiodism, pollination, fertilisation, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit growth, ripening, seed development in PSMAs. Growth and development process during stress: Growth and development process during stress, production of secondary metabolites, molecular and genetic approaches in growth and development.
Practical: Dormancy mechanisms in seeds, seed rhizomes; Techniques of growth analysis; Evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency under different environments; Technologies for crop regulation in cashew, coffee, cocoa, etc.; Root shoot studies, flower thinning, fruit thinning; Crop regulation for year round production; Use of growth regulators in PSMA crops.
Biochemistry of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Post-harvest physiology: Physiological and biochemical changes: Maturity indices, changes during ripening, processing, factors affecting quality. Secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic pathways, factors affecting production of secondary metabolites. Contaminants: Adulterants, and substitutes, sources of contamination microbial, heavy metal, pesticide residues in PSMAs. Value addition: Value added products: Fixed oils, essential oils, dyes, oleoresins, aroma chemicals and other value added products, their content, storage, medicinal and pharmacological properties, use in the food, flavour perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. Quality standards: Quality standards of raw materials and finished products. Extraction techniques: Extraction methods: Basic and advanced extraction techniques in PSMAs-Soxhlet, SCFE, Membrane extraction. Chemical characterization-HPTLC, GCMS, LCMS, NMR. Plant tissue culture: Plant tissue cultures in the industrial production of bioactive plant metabolites. Cell suspension culture systems for large scale culturing of plant cells and production of secondary metabolites. Advantages of cell culture over conventional extraction techniques.
Practical: Biochemical characterisation; Detection of adulterants and substitutes; Extraction and quantification of secondary metabolites; Chromatographic separation of the products; Quality assurance; Testing the product; Exposure visit to leading industries; Assessment of antimicrobial properties; In-vitro production of secondary metabolites.
Biodiversity and Conservation of Plantation, Spices Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
Content: Plantation and Spice crops: Biodiversity: Biodiversity, issues and goals, centres of origin of Plantation and spice crops, primary and secondary centres of genetic diversity. Germplasm collection and quarantine: Exploration and germplasm collection, planning and logistics, exchange of germplasm, plant quarantine principles, regulations plant quarantine systems in India. Components of germplasm evaluation, descriptor lists. Conservation of genetics resources, Concept of base and active collections, long and short term storage of Plantation and spice crops, gene bank management. Documentation and cataloguing: Recent approaches and role of biotechnology in PGR conservation documentation and data base management, cataloguing gene bank information. Molecular markers in characterisation of plant genetic resources. GIS in biodiversity mapping. National and international issues: Genetic resources management of Plantation and Spice crops in India and in International perspective. Utilization and achievements in major crops. Concepts of rarity, threat, endangerment and extinction in major plantation and spice crops. Bio diversity concerns, national and international regulations, conservation networks. Good collection practices, domestication, PPV and FRA and DUS testing. Geographical indication, Biodiversity act and biodiversity legislations. Medicinal and aromatic crops: Biodiversity: Biodiversity, issues and goals, centres of origin of medicinal and aromatic crops, primary and secondary centres of genetic diversity. Germplasm collection and quarantine: Exploration and germplasm collection, planning and logistics, exchange of germplasm, plant quarantine principles, regulations plant quarantine systems in India. Components of germplasm evaluation, descriptor lists. Conservation of genetics resources, Concept of base and active collections, long and short term storage of Plantation and spice crops, gene bank management. Documentation and cataloguing: Recent approaches and role of biotechnology in PGR conservation documentation and data base management, cataloguing gene bank information. Molecular markers in characterisation of plant genetic resources. GIS in biodiversity mapping. National and international issues: Genetic resources management of Plantation and Spice crops in India and in International perspective. Utilization and achievements in major crops. Concepts of rarity, threat, endangerment and extinction in major plantation and spice crops. Bio diversity concerns, national and international regulations, conservation networks. Good collection practices, domestication, PPV and FRA and DUS testing. Geographical indication, Biodiversity act and biodiversity legislations.
Practical: Collection and identification of different plantation, spice, medicinal and aromatic plants from natural sources; Preparation of herbarium; Botanical and phyto-chemical grouping of PSMAs; Classification of PSMAs based on plant parts used; Documentation of germplasm; Maintenance of passport data and other records; Field explorations; Detection of adulterants and substitutes in PSMAs; Ethno botanical studies in tribal areas; Planning and layout of herbal gardens; Exposure visits to herbaria, herbal gardens and important organisations engaged in collection and utilization of PSMAs.
Post-Harvest Management (PHM) (M.Sc.)
Postharvest Management of Horticultural Produce
Content: Postharvest Management of Horticultural Produce: History, Importance and scope of Postharvest technology of horticultural produce. Nature and structure of horticultural produce. Pre and Postharvest losses and their causes. Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Regulation of ripening by use of chemicals and growth regulators. Control of sprouting, rooting and discoloration in vegetables. Maturity indices for harvest. Harvesting and harvesting tools. Curing in roots and tubers. Prepackage Operation: Preecooling, washing, sorting, grading of horticultural perishables for local markets and export. Postharvest handling of spices, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. Equipments for washing, sizing, grading. Pre and Postharvest treatments for extending storage life/ vase life. VHT, irradiation treatment, skin coating, degreening, etc. Prepackaging, Packaging techniques for local market and export. Standardsand specifications for fresh produce. Postharvest handling system for horticulture crops of regional importance. Principles of transport, modes of transportation, types of vehicles and transit requirements for different horticultural produce. Marketing: Factors influencing marketing of perishable crops, marketing systems and organizations.
Practical: Study of maturity indices for harvest of fruits, vegetables, spices and plantation crops; Protective skin coating with wax emulsion and pre and Postharvest treatment with fungicides, chemicals and growth regulators to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables; Prepackaging of perishables; Extension of vaselife of cut flowers by use of chemicals and growth regulators; Control of sprouting of potato and onion by using growth regulators; Study of modern harvesting, sorting and grading equipments; Study of effect of pre-cooling on shelf-life and quality of fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers; Visit to packaging centers; Visit to local markets, cooperative organizations, super markets dealing with marketing of Perishables.
Postharvest Physiology and Biochemistry of Perishables
Content: Biochemistry of perishables: Introduction, biochemical structure and composition of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals. Biochemical changes during development and ripening. Structural Deterioration of the Produce-cell wall degradation, change in membrane lipid.: Biosynthesis of ethylene and its regulation. Ethylene action and ripening processes, its perception-action and regulation. Postharvest physiology of perishables: Determining maturity and maturity indices. Ripening processes: events of ripening and factors affecting them. Physiology of preharvest and postharvest; factors affecting shelf-life and quality of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals. Respiration: respiratory climacteric, its significance. Transpiration and water stress during postharvest. Postharvest oxidative stress: active oxygen species, AOS generation, physiological effects on horticultural commodity, control of oxidative injury.
Practical: Determination of physical parameters like specific gravity, fruit firmness, etc.; Determination of physiological loss in weight; Determination of chemical constituents like sugar, starch, pigments, Vitamin C, acidity during maturation and ripening in fruits/ vegetables; Estimation of ethylene evolved from ripening fruits; Delay/ Hastening of ripening by ethylene treatments; Determination of firmness, TSS, moisture, Titratable acid, sugar, protein, starch, fats, chlorophyll, carotene, anthocyanin, phenols and tannins; Measurement of respiration and ethylene evaluation.
Packaging and Storage Offresh Horticultural Produce
Content: Storage Systems: Importance of storage of horticultural produce, present status and future scope. Principles and methods of storage – field storage structures and designs for bulk storage of horticultural produce- onion and potato, etc. Evaporative cool chambers. Physiological changes during storage. Refrigerated storage – principles of refrigeration, types of refrigerants, refrigeration equipments. Cold storage rooms – Calculation of refrigeration load. Storage requirements of different fruits, vegetables, flowers. Storage disorder symptoms and control. Controlled or modified atmosphere (CA/MA) storage – principles, uses, structures and equipments, methods and requirements. Effect of CA storage on the physiology of stored produce. Hypobaric storageprinciple, uses, and requirements. Storage disorders. Packaging Importance of packaging of fresh and processed horticultural produce, present status and future scope. Gaps in packaging concepts. Packaging requirements of fresh horticultural produce. Packaging patterns and methods. Food packaging systems: Different forms of packaging such as rigid, semi-rigid, flexible forms. Traditional, improved and specialized packages. Paper based packages: corrugated fibre board boxes – raw material and types of boxes. Flexible packaging materials – types and their properties. Consumer and intermediate flexible bulk containers. Testing of flexible packaging material. Barrier properties of packaging materials. New technology in packaging – stretch wrapping system, vacuum packaging, gas packaging, controlled atmosphere (active and intelligent) packaging, vibra packaging, skin packaging, shrink packaging, formfill- seal packaging, Packaging machines. Quality control and safety aspects of packaging materials.
Practical: Study of special storage structures for bulk storage of onion/ potato, etc.; Study of storage behavior of different fruits and vegetables in zero energy cool chamber; Determination of refrigeration requirements (capacity) for given quantity of fruits and vegetables; Study of storage behaviour of different fruits and vegetables in cold room; Study of chilling injury and storage disorders; Study of shelf-life of fruits and vegetables in modified atmosphere packaging. Visit to special storage structures, cold storage units. Study of types of packaging materials, types of plastic films and their properties; Determination of water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and gas transmission rate (GTR) of packaging material; Applications of packaging material for fresh fruits and vegetables, beverages, spice products; Determination of shelf-life of fresh products in different types of packages; Study of packaging machines – vacuum packaging machine, shrink wrapping machine, double seamer, etc. Visit to packaging unit.
Packaging of Processed Horticultural Produce
Content: Packaging principles and functions: Functions of packaging; Type of packaging materials; Selection of packaging material for different foods; Selective properties of packaging film; Methods of packaging and packaging equipment. Mechanical strength of different packaging materials; Printing of packages; Barcodes and other marking; Interactions between packaging material and foods; Environmental and cost consideration in selecting packaging materials. Manufacture of packaging materials; Potential of biocomposite materials for food packaging; Packaging regulations; Packaging and food preservation; Disposal of packaging materials. Metal cans: types, fabrication, lacquering and tin quality. Double seaming technology – defects and causes. Glass containers – types; testing quality – thermal shock resistance, thermal shock breakage, impact breakage. Testing of packaging; Rigid and semi rigid containers; Flexible containers; Sealing Equipment. Labeling; Aseptic and shrink packaging; Secondary and transport packaging. Different packaging systems for dehydrated foods, frozen foods, dairy foods, fresh fruits and vegetables.
Practical: Testing of packaging material: compression strength/drop test/thermal shock test/ seam evaluation/ seam defects; Determination of shelf-life of processed products in different types of packages; Study of packaging machines – vacuum packaging machine, shrink wrapping machine, double seamer, etc.; Visit to packaging units.
Principles and Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Preservation
Content: Principles and Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Processing: Introduction, Historical development in food processing, type of food and causes for food spoilage. Basic principles of fruits and vegetables processing; Thermal processing, pH classification of foods, heat resistance of microorganism; Heat resistance of enzymes in foods, Spoilage of thermal processed food; Containers – canning, rigid tin plates and cans, aluminium cans, glass containers – types; flexible packaging materials, Composite can, specification, corrosion of cans, heat penetration into containers and methods for determination of process time. Effects of low temperature on fresh commodities and prepared product. Freezing preservation, freezing points of foods, slow and quick freezing, Cryogenic freezing and frozen food storage. Drying and dehydration, sun drying solar dehydration, mechanical drying types of driers, osmotic dehydration. Food fermentation – alcoholic, acetic and lactic fermentation. Pickling and curing; Effect of salt on food preservation, types of salt cured products. Traditional and new products; chemical preservation, SO2, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, antioxidants and antibiotics, newer preservatives. Preservation by controlling water activity – high sugar products, intermediate moisture food, food concentration. Food irradiation, principles, types and sources of radiation, mode of action of ionizing radiation; radiation effect on food constituents and regulation.
Practical: List and cost of equipment, utensils, and additives required for small scale processing industry; Chemical analysis for nutritive value of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables; Preparation and preservation of fruit based beverages and blended products from fruits and vegetables; Evaluation of pectin grade; preparation and quality evaluation of fruit jam; Preparation of papain; Blanching and its effects on enzyme; Preparation of dehydrated vegetables; Study of different types of spoilages in fresh as well as processed horticultural produce; Study of biochemical changes and enzymes associated with spoilage; Sensory evaluation of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables; Visit to processing units.
Laboratory Techniques in Postharvest Horticulture
Content: Laboratory Techniques in Postharvest Management: Rheological techniques and instrumentation used in food industry. Analysis of food additives like food colour, antioxidants, emulsifier, etc. Analysis of pesticide residues, metallic contaminants, aflatoxin. Analysis of food flavours. Quality analysis of processed fruits and vegetables, coffee, tea and spices. Identification and enumeration of microbial contaminants. Principles of chromatography (GC, GCMS, HPLC, LCMS), spectrophotometry (Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ICAP spectrophotometer), ICP-MS, ICPOES, NMR, ESR, amino acid analyser, flame photometry, electrophoresis. Colour measurement in foods, IRGA, Radio-isotopic techniques. Non destructive quality evaluation (NDQE)- E-nose, E-tongue, machine vision. electrophoresis.
Practical: Sample preparation for quality analysis. Energy calculation, sample calculations; Texture analysis, Rheology of different foods; Instrumental colour analysis; Sensory evaluation and microbiological examinations of fresh and processed products; Estimation of tannin/ phytic acid by spectrometric method; Moisture and fat analysis by NIR spectroscopy; Separation and identification of sugars in fruit juices; Separation and identification of carotenoids by column chromatography; Estimation of respiration in fruits and vegetables; Flavour profile in essential oils using GC; Identification and determination of organic acids by HPLC; Capsaicin content and Scoville Heat Units in chillies; Heavy metal analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry; Residue analysis.
Processing of Horticultural Produce
Content: Importance and Thermal processes: Processing unit- layout and establishment, processing tools. Quality requirements of raw materials for processing, preparation of raw material, primary processing: grading, sorting, cleaning, washing, peeling, slicing and blanching; minimal processing. Preparation of various processed products from fruits and vegetables, flowers; role of sugar and pectin in processed products. Freezing of fruits and vegetables. Containers, equipment and technologies in canning. Juice extractions, clarification and preservation, recent advances in juice processing technology, application of membrane technology in processing of juices, preparation of fruit beverages and juice concentrate. Sensory evaluation. Processing equipment and enzyme kinetics: Dehydration of fruits and vegetables using various drying technologies and equipment, solar drying and dehydration, packaging technique for processed products. Quality assurance and storage system for processed products. Nutritive value of raw and processed products, plant sanitation and waste disposal. Types of horticultural and vegetables wastes and their uses, utilization of by- products from fruits and vegetables processing industries.
Practical: Handling of harvesting equipments; Determination of physical and thermal properties of horticultural commodities; Thermal process calculations; Particle size analysis, Storage structure design; Numerical problems in freezing, drying, conveying and calculations pertaining to texture and Rheology; Handling of heating equipment, pulper, juice extractor, deaerator, juice filters; Processing industries waste treatment; Working of a canning unit; Visit to commercial processing units and storage units.
Quality Assurance, Safety and Sensory Evaluation of Fresh and Processed Horticultural Produce
Content: Quality Assurance: Concept of quality: Quality attributes- physical, chemical, nutritional, microbial, and sensory; their measurement and evaluation. Concepts of quality management: Objectives, importance and functions of quality control; Quality management systems in India; Sampling procedures and plans. Food laws and regulations in India, Quality management standards, ISO,BIS, PFA, AGMARK and QMS standards, quality system components and their requirements. Safety: Food safety and standards act (FSSA,2006); Strategies for compliance with international agri-food standards; Export specification and guidelines by APEDA. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), design and implementation of an HACCP system, steps in the risk management process. Traceability in food supply chains. Organic Certification, GAP, GMP, TQM. Indian and International quality systems and standard like, Codex Alimentarius, ISO, etc. Consumer perception of safety; Ethics in food safety. Sensory Evaluation: Introduction to sensory analysis; general testing conditions, Requirements of sensory laboratory; organizing sensory evaluation programme. Selection of sensory panellists; Factors influencing sensory measurements; Sensory quality parameters -Size and shape, texture, aroma, taste, colour and gloss; Detection, threshold and dilution tests. Different tests for sensory evaluation– discrimination, descriptive, affective; Flavour profile and tests; Ranking tests. Methods of sensory evaluation of different food products. Designing of experiments. Handling and interpretation of Data. Role of sensory evaluation in product optimization. Relationship between objective and subjective methods.Sensory analysis for consumer evaluation. Computer-aided sensory evaluation of food and beverage.
Practical: Analysis for TSS, pH, acidity, sugars, pectic substances, minerals, vitamin C, carotene, alcohol, benzoic acid and SO2 contents, yeast and microbial examination in processed products; Demonstration of measurement of vacuum/ pressure, head space, filled weight, drained weight, cut-out analysis and chemical additives; Moisture content, rehydration ratio and enzymatic/ non-enzymatic browning in dehydrated products; Analysis of spices for quality parameters. Evaluation of processed products according to FSSAI specification; Selection and training of sensory panel; Identification of basic taste, odour, texture and colour; Detection and threshold tests; Ranking tests for taste, aroma, colour and texture; Sensory evaluation of various horticultural processed products using different scales, score cards and tests, Hedonic testing; Estimation of color and texture; optimising a product by sensory analysis; Studying relationship between objective and subjective methods.
Functional Foods from Horticultural Produce
Content: Functional food and importance: Functional foods- Introduction, definition, history; Importance, relevance and need of functional foods. Sources and classification of functional foods. Importance of horticultural produce as functional foods. Functional foods derived from fruits, vegetables, medicinal and aromatics. Functional ingredients and their properties. Therapeutic potential and effects of horticultural produce; Herbs, herbal teas, oils, etc. in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Effect of preservation and processing on functional properties of horticulture produce. Bioactive Compounds: Introduction, Classes of bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols: Phenolic acid, Stilbenes, Flavonoids, Lignin, Coumarin, Tannin, etc. –their chemistry, source, bioavailability, interaction in food systems; changes during storage and processing. lkaloids; Nitrogen Containing Compounds; Sulphur compounds; phytosterols; carotenoids; dietary fibres, etc.–their chemistry, source, bioavailability, interaction in food systems; changes during storage and processing. Mechanism of neuroprotection by bioactive compounds. Techniques of Extraction, purification and concentration of bioactive compounds from fruits and vegetables.Bioactive compound and health benefits Incorporation of bioactive compounds in foods. Neutraceuticals: Nutraceuticals- Introduction, classification of nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, fortified foods, functional foods and phytonutraceuticals. Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in nutraceutical industry. Health benefits of phytoneutraceuticals.
Marketing and Entrepreneurship in Post Harvest Horticulture
Content: Entrepreneurship – Concept, need for entrepreneurship – Types of entrepreneurs -entrepreneurial opportunities in horticultural processing sector-Government schemes and incentives for promotion of entrepreneurship in processing sector. Writing Business Plan- Business Plan Format for Small and micro Enterprises-Generation, incubation and commercialization of business ideas – Environment scanning and opportunity identification. Steps in establishment of MSME Enterprise – Planning of an enterprise – Formulation and project report-Meaning – Importance Components and preparation.-Government Formalities and Procedures. Marketing potential of processed products at domestic and international level-Marketing management-Marketing functions, market information and market research-Problems in marketing of processed products- Demand and supply analysis of important processed products Marketing channels – Marketing strategy (product strategy and pricing strategy)- Supply chain management – Meaning, importance, advantages, supply chain management of important processed products. Institutional support to Entrepreneurship Role of Directorate of Industries, District Industries, Centres (DICs), Industrial Development Corporation (IDC), State Financial corporation (SFCs), Commercial banks Small Scale Industries Development Corporations (SSIDCs), Khadi and village Industries Commission (KVIC), National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).
Practical: Consumer Behaviour towards Processed Foods; An Empirical Test-Carrying out the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of successful Enterprises; Constraints in setting up of horti based industries; Field visits to study any one of the Local Financial Institutions to study the MSME Policies; Preparation of business plan and proposal writing-Project evaluation techniques; Discounted and undiscounted techniques; Case studies of successful entrepreneurs.