M. Sc. Forestry

Forestry– Silviculture and Agroforestry (SAF) (M.Sc.)

  1. Silviculture
  2. Forest Biometry
  3. Silvicultural Practices
  4. Agroforestry Systems
  5. Interactions in Agroforestry Systems
  6. Modern Nursery Technologies
  7. Plantation Forestry
  8. Industrial Agroforestry
  9. Climate Change and Conservation Silviculture
  10. Trees and Shrubs for Agroforestry
  11. Economics of Agroforestry Systems
  12. Tree Seed Technology
  13. Nutrient and Weed Management in Production Forestry
  14. Crops and Live Stock Management in Agroforestry

Forestry– Forest Biology and Tree Improvement (FBT) (M.Sc.)

  1. Applied Forest Tree Improvement
  2. Forest Ecology and Biodiversity Management
  3. Breeding Methods in Forest Trees
  4. Reproductive Biology of Forest Trees
  5. Tree Seed Orchards
  6. Quantitative Genetics in Forest Tree Breeding
  7. Forest Genetic Diversity and Conservation
  8. Biotechnology in Forestry
  9. Clonal Forestry
  10. Forest Ecophysiology
  11. Physiology of Woody Plants
  12. Breeding for Insect Pest and Disease Resistance in Trees
  13. Tree Seed Technology

Forestry– Forest Products and Utilization (FPU) (M.Sc.)

  1. Non Wood Forest Products Management
  2. Applied Wood Technology
  3. Pulp and Paper Technology
  4. Composite Wood Technology
  5. Forest Products Laboratory Techniques
  6. Agro-techniques of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
  7. Breeding Techniques and Improvement of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
  8. Chemistry and Processing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  9. Wood Identification
  10. Chemistry of Forest Products and Industries
  11. Wood Chemistry
  12. Wood Physics
  13. Wood Seasoning and Preservation
  14. Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
  15. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Health Care Systems
  16. Pharmacognosy of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Forestry– Forest Resource Management (FRM) (M.Sc.)

  1. Forest Biometry and Management
  2. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils
  3. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System in Natural Resource Management
  4. Land Use Planning and Watershed Management
  5. Forest Resource Economics
  6. Forest Ecosystem Services and Valuation
  7. Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing
  8. Forest Policy, law and International Conventions
  9. Global Climate Change Impact, Mitigation and Adaptation
  10. Participatory Approaches in Forest Resource Management
  11. Management of Tree Insect-Pests and Diseases
  12. Forest Ecology, Biodiversity and Management


Forestry– Silviculture and Agroforestry (SAF) (M.Sc.)

  1. Silviculture

Content: Forest ecosystems- Introduction to tropical/ temperate silviculture. Role of silviculture in forest and wild land management, major forest formations classification, distribution, composition and structure. Vegetation dynamics- species richness-diversity indices. Vegetation forms of India and their productivity. Forest ecosystem- structure and functioning, community development, competitive interactions in forest communities, forest succession, concepts and models of succession-Connell-Slatyer models, climax theories, tolerance. Ecophysiology of tree growth- effect of radiation and water relationship, mineral nutrients and temperature. Forest stand development – stand development, evenaged and uneven-aged stands, age and site quality. Tree architecture and its role in stand management. Stand density determination-stand density indices-stand density management density management diagram, silvicultural treatments involved- thinning as a stand management tool, objectives of thinning, effects on growth and yield, thinning effect on economic yield of stands. Forest site quality evaluation-direct and indirect methods. Treatment analysis-silvicultural regimes- factors influencing choice of regimes, use of system analysis to determine regimes, models for evaluating silvicultural alternatives, development of silvicultural regimes to suit management objectives, optimum management strategies, silvicultural prescriptions for maximum production regime.

Practical: Visit to forest areas to study forest composition, classification, factors of locality, site quality, form and growth of forest trees- study plant succession- study stand density, changes on productivity- thinning effects.

  1. Forest Biometry

Content: Measurement of tree parameters. Determination of tree age and dendrochronology for growth history and climate change studies. Estimation of volume, growth and yield of individual tree and forest stands. Preparation of volume tables. Application of yield and stand tables. Forest inventory, sampling methods adopted in forestry, Use of GIS in forest inventory. Quantification of regeneration and stand establishment. Measurement of crown density and crown ratios. Simulation techniques. Growth and yield prediction models – their preparation and applications.

Practical: Calculations of volume of felled as well as standing trees; Volume table preparation; Application of different sampling methods; Preparation of yield and stand table; Quantification of regeneration and stand establishment; Measurement of crown density and crown ratios; Crown profiling of trees and stand; Dendrochronological studies.

  1. Silvicultural Practices

Content: Sivilculture under changing context of forestry- sivilculture and ecosystem management, stand dynamics, silvicultural practices for pure and mixed stand, even aged and uneven aged stand – silvicultural practices for changing climatic conditions. Silvicultural practices for natural and artificial regeneration – Ecology of regeneration, forest site management- enrichment of site – quality classes and site index models – stand density – spacing and tree growth – forest vegetation management – techniques for early stand growth- tending operations. Biomass allocation: belowground and aboveground. Changing trends in adoption of silvicultural systems. Stand development – stages- crown dynamics, Crown Competition factor, Maximum crown area, thinning – pruning – response of trees and impact on wood quality, salvage cutting – improvement felling and enrichment planting – management of weeds, Invasive weeds in forests, Silvicultural practices for short rotation forestrycoppice forestry, Continuous cover forestry. Site specific selection of tree species. Precision silviculture –silvicultural practices for important fast growing trees and bamboos of India- Populus species, Neolamarkia cadamba, Eucalyptus sp., Casuarina sp.,Tectona grandis, Melia dubia, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea, Leucaena leucocephala, Ailanthus excelsa, Azadirachta indica, Swietenia macrophylla, Dendrocalamus sp., Bambusa sp., – Mechanization of silvicultural practices.

Practical: Visit to different forest sites to study the influence of site factors on composition; Determination of site quality; Studies on stand structure and composition of different forest types; Practicing pruning and its impact on wood quality; Characterizing methods of thinning; Working out intensity of thinning; Study of stand densities in natural forest stand and plantation stand; Afforestation techniques, Wood management techniques for forest tree crops; Planning and designing a tree planting programme; Exercise on precision silviculture practices; Exercise on mechanized silvicultural practices.

  1. Agroforestry Systems

Content: Agroforestry: objectives, importance, potentials and limitations for implementations. Land capability classification and land evaluation. Basis of classification of agroforestry systems and principles, indigenous vs. exotic, intraspecific variations, crown architecture of tropical/ temperate trees. Ideotype concept for selection of multipurpose trees. Nitrogen fixing trees. Overview and case studies of different agroforestry systems. Structural and functional attributes of agroforestry systems, shifting cultivation, taungya system, multiple and mixed cropping, alley cropping, silvopastoral systems, shelter-belts and windbreaks, energy plantations and home gardens. Role of trees in soil productivity and conservation– micro-site enrichment- litter and fine root dynamics, Nitrogen fixation and nutrient pumping. Soil productivity and management in agroforestry. Community forestry and social forestry, linear strip plantations. Trends in agroforestry systems research and development, Diagnosis and Design –PRA-RRA tools in agroforestry problem diagnosis. Climate Change mitigation and adaptation through agroforestry- climate negotiations- LULUCF- agroforestry options.

Practical: Survey and analysis of land use systems in the adjoining areas; Study of tree crown architecture; Design and plan of suitable models for improvement; PRA-RRA tools in agroforestry problem diagnosis.

  1. Interactions in Agroforestry Systems

Content: Tree-crop interphase- biological factors affecting form and function in woody and non-woody plant mixtures. Nature and types of interactions- positive and negative, aboveground and belowground interactions- competition, complementarity in resource sharing. Method for quantifying interactions, principles of resource capture and utilization of light and water, nutrition and space. Tree-soil-crop interactions- nitrogen fixing trees interactions in agroforestry. Allelopathy. Use of radioisotopes in tree-crop interaction studies. Root distribution of trees and crops-competition and/ orcomplementarity. Animal-tree-crop interaction. Management options to neutralize negative (competitive) interactions, tree husbandry practices for alleviating competition- tree density manipulation, pruning, mixture of trees and herbaceous crops.

Practical: Different methods for quantifying interactions; Studies on allelopathy; Effect, microclimate modifications, different plant mixtures, tree-soil-crop interactions; Estimation of Land Equivalent Ratio, Estimation of competition indices; Measurement and interpretation of light interception in agroforestry systems; Interpretation of yield responses to shelter, soil water and drainage measurement, transpiration measurement, quantifying root distribution.

  1. Modern Nursery Technologies

Content: Introduction and importance of nursery. Types of nurseries-temporary and permanent, bare root, containerized and clonal nursery. Bare root nursery- nursery soil and water management, bed preparation, pre-sowing seed treatments, seed sowing and intermediate operations, viz., pricking, watering, fertilization, weeding and hoeing. Physiology and nursery environment interaction affecting seedling growth. Root culturing techniques. Containerized nursery—type and size of containers including root trainers, selection of growing medium. Types of green house and mist chamber for propagation. Vegetative propagation – importance selection of superior genotypes, Advanced methods of propagation, containers, growing media, fertilizers, sanitation and management in vegetative propagation. Special requirement for clonal propagation. Propagation Structures and Management. Clonal propagation: miniclonal and micro cuttings technology. Vegetative propagation of bamboos and canes. Factors affecting rooting of cuttings. Lifting windows. Important forest nursery pests and diseases and their management. Seedling quality assessment, grading, packaging, storing and transportation.

Practical: Introduction and identification of modern equipments and tools used in nursery; Pre-sowing seed treatments; Preparation of nursery beds and growing media for containerized nursery; Sowing of seed and other intermediate operations; Preparation and planting of cuttings; Use of vegetative propagation methods such as budding, grafting and layering; Miniclonal and microcutting technology; Use of plant bio-regulators for rooting; Assessment of seedling quality; Maintenance of nursery records. Identification of nursery insects and diseases and their control measures; Visit to forest nurseries; Nursery practices of commercially important tree species.

  1. Plantation Forestry

Content: Role of plantation forestry in meeting the wood demand – status of plantation forestry in India and world. Purpose of plantation, factors determining scale and rate of plantation. Land suitability and choice of species. Preliminary site preparation for establishing plantation. Plantation planning, project formulation and appraisal. Planting programme, time of planting, spacing, pattern and planting methods. Nutritional dynamics and irrigation of plantation. Mechanization in plantation. Protection and after care of plantation. Pruning and thinning in plantations for quality wood production. Rotation in plantation. Failures of plantations. Impact of interaction and integration of plantation forestry. Protective afforestation, afforestation of inhospitable sites. Plantation forestry for climate change mitigation- carbon forestry. Ecological factors and long term productivity. Sustainable yield from plantations. Case studies in plantations of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Poplars, Acacias, Pine, Silver Oak, Gmelina, Teak, Sandal, Bamboo, etc. Production technology of energy plantations, industrial plantations. Emerging concepts in plantation forestry: mixed plantation, continuous cover forests.

Practical: Analysis of plantation problems in Asia and India; Preparation of plantation calendar –Preliminary arrangement for a plantation programme; Planting geometry and calculation of planting stock; Study of different cultural operations and site preparation for plantation; Studies on wood based industries – problems and prospects; Management of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Teak, Sal, Poplar, Acacias and Bamboo plantations; Production technology for energy plantations. INM in plantations; Irrigation and plantations; Economics of pulpwood, timber and energy plantations. Study of mixed plantation model.

  1. Industrial Agroforestry

Content: Role of forests in industrial sector, industrial raw material, demand and supply, indigenous and exotic industrial resources, extent of area, policy and legal issues towards industrial wood plantation. Major wood based industries in India; timber, pulp wood, plywood, matches, etc. Raw material requirements and their procurements. Industrial wood plantations – status in India and different states, preferred species – current plantation management and establishment, propagation and plantation technique, economics of industrial agroforestry, pest and disease management for major industrial wood species, harvesting, reduced impact logging, mechanization. Supply chain; definition, concept, supply chain network, logistic activities, Marketing system; marketing type and channel, price patterns of various industrial wood agroforestry plantations. Contract farming: concept and methods, contract tree farming system in India. Industrial experiences– price support system – constraints. Corporates in industrial agroforestry: International and National corporate, success stories. Corporate social responsibilities. Tree insurance. Impacts of industrial agroforestry – ecological impacts; climatic, edaphic and biotic– carbon sequestration. Carbon storage potential of industrial agroforestry and carbon trading mechanism of industrial agroforestry, socio-economic impacts–clean development mechanism. Certification of industrial plantations.

Practical: Study of various wood based industries; Study on raw material requirement and sourcing of plywood, pulp and paper, matchwood, timber processing; Biomass power generation industries; Value addition technology of various wood products; Industrial wood plantations – economics and impact assessment.

  1. Climate Change and Conservation Silviculture

Content: Global climate change-factors involved, green house gases, potential threats, global carbon cycle and C-budget, carbon sequestration. Forests and climate change: Forest responses and vulnerabilities to climate change mitigation. Status of forests in global climate change. Harnessing Forests for Climate Change Mitigation, International climate negotiation, UNFCCC, IPCC, CoP:LULUCF, REDD++ and CDM. Silviculture and sustainability-criteria and indicators for sustainable plantation forestry in India-CIFOR guidelines. Silvicultural and stand management strategies for carbon sink maximization and source minimization. Adaptive silviculture for climate change. Disturbance- natural and anthropogenic, short and long term impacts and their implications. Fire loss estimation in forests. Deforestation and degradation trends at global, national and regional levels. Mega development projects, Road widening projects and conservation of native and threatened species, management and rehabilitation plans. Impacts of ‘No Green Felling’ on stand productivity and health. Restoration forestry silvicultural treatments for habitat restoration, catchment area treatments, enrichment planting, Analog forestry for site productivity and carbon value. Expanding forest and tree cover area- TOF sector in India. Role of canopy in regulating functional inputs to stand: canopy and forest continuum, Continuous Cover Forestry. Silviculture of old growth stands and sacred groovestheir ecological significance and biodiversity values. Carbon sequestration potential of Trees Outside forests (TOFs), homegardens and urban forests.

  1. Trees and Shrubs for Agroforestry

Content: Introduction, importance of woody elements in agroforestry systems, their role in biomass production. Suitability of species for different purposes. Multipurpose trees in agroforestry systems. Fodder from trees/ shrubs and their nutritive value, propagation techniques. Role of nitrogen fixing trees/ shrubs. Choice of species for various agro-climatic zones for the production of timber, fodder, fuel wood, fibre, fruits, medicinal and aromatic plants. Generic and specific characters of trees and shrubs for agroforestry. Fruit crop and small timber trees and their need and relevance in agroforestry, trees suitable for various assemblage and their planting plan in different agroclimatic zones and agroforestry system. Intercropping in fruit orchards like Apple, Walnut, Jack fruit, Mango, Sapota, Pomegranate, Orange, Citrus, Guava, etc. Modification in tending and pruning operations and canopy management. Fertility management, yield and quality improvement.

Practical: Field survey and acquaintance with specialized features of trees, shrubs and fruit species and varieties for Agroforestry; Planting plans including wind breaks; Training and pruning of forest trees, shrubs and fruit trees for enhancing production in agroforestry system.

  1. Economics of Agroforestry Systems

Content: Basic principles of economics applied to agroforestry. Financial measures. Quantification and valuation of inputs and outputs- direct and indirect methods. Optimization techniques-Planning, budgeting and functional analysis. Role of time, risk and uncertainty in decision making. Agroforestry budgeting. Risk analysis, reassessment. Financial and socio-economic analysis of agroforestry projects. Principles of financial management and harvesting, post harvest handling, value addition, marketing of agroforestry products including benefit sharing. Valuation of ecosystem services in agroforestry and payment for ecosystem systems. Bankable agroforestry projects, incentives, tree insurance, etc. Certification process in agroforestry based carbon projects, carbon finance, etc.

Practical: Exercises on agroforestry production relationships; Preparation of agroforestry based enterprise, partial and complete budgets; Application of various methods in formulation and appraisal of agro-forestry projects; Case studies on harvesting, post harvest management and marketing of agroforestry products; Valuation of ecosystem services in agroforestry and payment for ecosystem services.

 Course Title: Tree Seed Technology (SAF 512)

  1. Tree Seed Technology

Content: Introduction, trends and development in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate forestry and their influence on seed demand. Seed problems, limiting factors in tree propagation and afforestation. Reproductive biologyof seed plants – development and maturation of seed bearing organs and seeds – morphology of fruit and seed – seed dispersal – ecological fruit and seed types- seasonality and periodicity of flowering and fruiting – reproductive age – influence of external factors on seed production. Seed structure and chemical composition – development and maturation – germination – breakdown of storage products – endogenous hormonal regulation – effect of stimulators and inhibitors– dormancy – its causes and breakage specific problems of seeds of woody plants. Determining maturity indices. Factors influencing choice of collection methods. Methods of seed collection and processing. Storage methods – loss of viability during storage. Dormancy and pre-treatment. Germination and seedling establishment and seed testing techniques. Quality seed production technologies – seed certification. Eco-physiological role of seed storage. Classification of seed storage potential. Factors affecting seed longevity. Pre-storage treatment. Physiological change during ageing. Storage of orthodox, recalcitrant and intermediate seeds, Fumigation and seed treatment.

Practical: Identification of forest seeds; Seed sampling, different storage methods, Seed quality testing-purity, viability and germination, collection and processing of seeds/ fruit; Tests of viability, viz., cutting, hydrogen peroxide, excised embryo, tetrazolium, seed health testing primarily to the presence or absence of disease-causing organisms such as fungi, bacteria, virus and animal pests, recording, calculation and use of results of seed treatment.

  1. Nutrient and Weed Management in Production Forestry

Content: History of nutrient management in forest nurseries and plantations. Essential nutrient elements and their deficiency. Mechanism of nutrient uptake by plants, functions and translocation/ interactions. Concept of nutrient availability. Climatic and soil conditions causing micronutrient deficiencies in plants. Occurrence and treatment of micronutrient disorders. Evaluation of soil for the supply of micronutrient. Rare and non-essential elements. Technology and use of complex liquid and suspension fertilizers. Fertilizer use efficiency. Biological nitrogen fixation and bio-fertilizers. Farm yard manure and other organic fertilizers. Mycorrhizal associations and their significance. Economic implications of nutrient management. Importance of renewable wastes and their recycling. Principles of weed control. Methods of weed control-cultural, biological, mechanical and chemical. Herbicide/ weedicide classification, properties and their application.

Practical: Methods of soil and plantanalysis. Preparation of nutrient solutions. Practical application of fertilizers; Study of fertilizer response and diagnosis of deficiency symptoms. Fertilizer testing and pot experiments; Nursery inoculation techniques of bio-fertilizers; Methods of application of formulated products-seed treatment, root dip, suckers treatment, soil application, foliar application and combination of different methods; Important weeds in forest nurseries and plantations. Control of weeds.

  1. Crops and Live Stock Management in Agroforestry

Content: Choice of inter-crops for different tree species, sowing and planting techniques. Planting patterns, crop geometry, nutrient requirements, and weed management. Management of fodder tree species, thinning, lopping, pruning. Ecological and socio-economic interactions. Role of tree architecture and its management on system’s productivity. Production potentials of fodder based agroforestry systems in different agro-climatic conditions and crop combinations. Importance of cattle, sheep and goat vis-à-vis agro-forestry systems. Feed and fodder resources in agro-forestry systems and live stock management. Nutrient analysis of forages derived from fodder trees/ shrubs. Nutrient requirement for various livestock and their ration computation with agroforestry forages and tree leaves. Forage and tree leaves preservation. Calendars for forage crop production in agro-forestry systems including lopping schedules. Optimization of animal production. Animal products technology and marketing. Integrated Agroforestry Farming System.

Forestry– Forest Biology and Tree Improvement (FBT) (M.Sc.)

  1. Applied Forest Tree Improvement

Content: General concept of forest tree breeding, tree improvement and forest genetics. Reproduction in forest trees, dimorphism, pollination mechanism. Pollen dispersal, pollinators. Attractants for pollinators. Variation in trees, importance and its causes. Natural variations as a basis for tree improvement. Geographic variations – Ecotypes, clines, races and land races. Selective breeding methods- mass, family, within family, family plus within family. Plus tree selection for wood quality, disease resistance and agroforestry objectives. Selection strategies and choice of breeding methods and progress in selective breeding in forest trees. Seed orchards – type, functions and importance,Genetic testing- mating designs and field designs. Progeny and clone testing estimating genetic parameters and genetic gain, clonal and breeding values. Average performance of half sibs and fullsibs. GxE interaction in trees. Heterosis breeding: inbreeding and hybrid vigour. Manifestation and fixation of heterosis. Species and racial hybridization. Indian examples – teak, shisham, eucalypts, acacias, poplar, etc. Polyploidy, aneuploidy and haploidy in soft and hard wood species. Induction of polyploidy. Elements of biotechnology in tree improvement.

Practical: Floral biology, modes of reproduction and modes of pollination in forest trees; Estimating pollen viability. Controlled pollination and pollen handling; Manipulation of flowering through hormones; Identification of ecotypes, races and land-races in natural forest; Visit to species, provenance and progeny trials; Selection of superior phenotypes; Marking of candidate trees, plus trees and elite trees; Visit to seed orchards; Comparison of parents and their putative hybrids; Induction of polyploidy through colchicine treatment; In-vitro propagation, study of molecular markers.

  1. Forest Ecology and Biodiversity Management

Content: Hierarchy issues in ecology and ecosystem. Advanced topics in forest ecology including forest population, forest community dynamics, forest community structure and analysis, forest productivity, ecology of forest landscapes spatial heterogeneity and ecological succession. Conservation of natural resources (hotspot areas, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserve). Climate change, Global warming and forests. Green house effect and its consequences. Ozone depletion. Conservation laws and acts. Forest genetics resources of India: timber and non timber species. Survey exploration and sampling strategies Phytogeography and vegetation types of India. Documentation and evaluation of forest genetical resources (FGR), in situ and ex situ conservation of gene resources. Phytodiversity and its significance to sustainable use. Handling and storage of FGR. Intellectual property rights. Quarantine laws and FGR exchange.

Practical: Study of forest community structure and its successional status; Estimation of productivity of forest ecosystem; Study tours to different regions of the state to study forest vegetation; Collection and preservation of specimen, Methods of vegetation analysis; Measurement of biomass and productivity; Quantification of litter production and decomposition; Visit to national parks, wildlife sanctuaries. Botanical gardens and arboreta.

  1. Breeding Methods in Forest Trees

Content: Genetic constitution of tree populations, half-sib, full-sib family in trees. Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, changes in gene frequency through selection, migration, mutation and population sizes. Long-term and short-term breeding populations. Selective breeding methods- mass, family, within family, family plus within family. Grading system of plus trees in natural stands and plantations selection index, regression systems, mother tree selection and subjective evaluation. Selection for different traits. Genetic testing programmes – mating designs, complete designs – nested designs, factorial, single pair mating, full diallel, half diallel and partial diallel, incomplete pedigree designs – open pollinated mating and polycross mating. Improvement through progeny testing. Experimental designs in genetic testing. Breeding methods for wood quality, diseases and pest resistance, drought and salt resistance. Testing procedures for genetic advancement. Marker assisted selection. Tree improvement case histories.

Practical:  Half-sib, full-sib family in trees; Grading system of plus trees in natural stands; Mating designs, complete pedigree designs – nested designs, factorial, single pairmating, full diallel, half diallel and partial diallel, incomplete pedigree designs – open pollinated mating and polycross mating; Selection for biotic and abiotic stresses.

  1. Reproductive Biology of Forest Trees

Content: Importance and application of reproductive biology in tree breeding. Crop characteristics-growth and development (both vegetative and reproductive). Floral diversity and pollination. Flower types pollination syndromes and their evolution. Plant – pollinator systems. Diversity of pollination syndromes in selected plant families. Modes of reproduction-sexual, asexual and vegetative and their breeding systems and sex expression, monoecy, dioecy and its evolution. Environmental effects on sex expression. Floral biology. Modes of pollination self and out-crossing. Floral attractants and rewards biology of floral and extrafloral nectries examples of plant insect interactions involving pollination. Floral characteristics of the main pollination syndromes. Environmental effects on sex expression. Floral biology initiation and development. Modes of pollination self and out-crossing. Fertilization in hardwood and softwood species. Seed dispersal and gene flow.

Practical: Sex expression in forest trees; Out crossing mechanisms in forest trees; Measurement of pollen flow in wind-pollinated and insect-pollinated species; Pollen viability and fertility; Seed dispersal mechanism.

  1. Tree Seed Orchards

Content: Importance of genetically improved seed in plantation forestry. Status of seed production among major plantation species. Short term supply of superior seed. Selection and delineation of seed stands, seed production areas, seed zones, seed ecological zones. Seed orchard: need, evolving seed orchards, containerized seed, hybrid and research seed orchards; first, second and advanced generation seed orchards. Seed orchard genetics: random mating, gamete exchange and parental balance. Estimation of genetic parameters from seed orchard data. Ortet age and its effect on seed production. Importance of progeny testing. Establishment of seed orchards, selection and preparation of orchard site, isolation, orchard size, and designs. Seed orchard management: rouging, silvicultural practices to increase seed yield. Pest and disease management. Seed collection and record keeping, seed orchard registration and documentation. Importance of seed orchards in gene conservation.

Practical: Visits and study of seed orchard designs; Estimation of overlap in flowering among genotypes; Study of inter and intra-clonal variation in floral, seed characters; Effect of girdling on flowering; Plant growth regulator application for flower induction; Pollen viability/ fertility; Assessment of pollen dispersa; Supplemental mass-pollination; Effects of foliar application of fertilizers on seed set; Estimation of genetic parameters for a few traits; Estimation of parental balance.

  1. Quantitative Genetics in Forest Tree Breeding

Content: Historical aspects of quantitative genetics. Inheritance of continuously varying characters, Genetic variance and its partitioning, models of gene action. Multiple factor hypothesis (Nilsson-Ehle (1908) and East (1915) experiments. Mating systems, population structure in random mating. Hardy Weinberg law, Effect of selection, mutation, migration, genetic drift; on genes and genotypic frequency. Inbreeding, effects of inbreeding in various populations. Heterosis, causes of heterosis and its utility in various plants. Significance and estimation of genetic variance components. Heritability, its estimation by various methods and significance. Natural selection, fundamental theorem of natural selection (Fisher 1930). Selection responses. Correlation and its utility. Partitioning of correlation into direct and indirect effects. Mating design, combining ability, general and specific combining ability and methods of its estimation. Genotypic x environment interaction, its significance. Various procedures for the estimation of genotypic x environment interaction.

Practical: Exercise on polygenic inheritance; Proof that quantitative characters are inherited in Mendelian fashion; Estimation of genotypic and phenotypic variance in an experiment, estimation of additive and dominance components of variance through various procedures; Mating designs and estimation of components of genetic variance; Proof of population genetics law; Exercise on calculation of gene and genotypic frequency; Estimation of heterosis, estimation of heritability (broad sense and narrow sense) by various methods; Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients, partitioning of correlation into direct and indirect effects; Estimation of general combining ability and specific combining ability; Estimation of genotypic x environment interaction.

  1. Forest Genetic Diversity and Conservation

Content: Phytodiversity-concept, levels ecosystem. Genetic diversity and differentiation definition, characteristics and importance for tree breeding. Genetic erosion. Techniques to assess genetic diversity. Analysis of karyotypic variation. Molecular approaches for assessing genetic diversity. Inventory and monitoring biodiversity: sampling strategies for genetic diversity assessments sufficiency of sampling procedures, neutral allele model and optimal allocation of sampling efforts. Methods of sampling of genetic diversity. Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. Conservation of genetic diversity Conservation biology and invasive species. Laws and policies. Methods for maintenance of conservation: gene banks, arboreta, botanical gardens, breeding populations as repositories of gene conservation. Rare, threatened biodiversity, endangered and endemise plants. Techniques for survey and assessment of endangered plants. Rarity patterns and endemism. Concept of island biogeography. Managing corridors and natural habitat fragments. Monitoring and recovery plans for endangered plants. Plant community reserves. Managing wild flora tourism impacts and eco tourism and urban forestry of rare/ exotic plants. Implications of rarity.

  1. Biotechnology in Forestry

Content: Introduction. Cloning, need for cloning, problems with cloning. Traditional cloning techniques versus micro-propagation, prospects of micro-propagation in forestry. Techniques procedures and problems in micro propagation, case studies. Protocols for micro-propagation.Preconditioning of explants, surface sterilization, nutritional media, other environmental factors controlling micro-propagation, choice of explants for micro-propagation. Micro propagation of juvenile material. Micro propagation of mature trees. In-vitro propagation of plants with low sexual reproduction rates, miscellaneous application. Initiation and maintenance of callus. Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis – factors influencing somatic embryogenesis-applications in forestry, Somatic seeds, encapsulation techniques. Somaclonal variation, genetic and epigenetic variation, exploitation in forestry. Cell suspension cultures. Anther and pollen cultures. Triploids through endosperm culture, embryo culture. Monoploid production by chromosome elimination. Applications of In-vitro fertilization, isolation, purification and culture of protoplasts, protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization. Cryopreservation, storage of plant genetic resouces. Production of secondary metabolites by cell cultures. Meristem culture, virus free plants. Genetic engineering – application in forestry Isozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) and microsatellites. Genetic fingerprinting, Marker assisted selection. Different PCR techniques: their characteristics, with advantages and disadvantages. Quantification of genetic diversity, genotype verification and delineation. Introduction of genes. Promoters and marker genes. disease resistance, herbicide tolerance and tolerance to salt and other stresses.

Practical: Introduction to tissue culture lab; Micropropagation: Aseptic techniques; Preparation of culture media,formulation of different culture media; Induction and maintenance of callus, regeneration of plants from callus, regeneration of plants from embryoids; Cell suspension culture; Anther and pollen culture. Quantification of tissue culture; Isolation and culture of protoplasts; Marker assisted RFLP in test trees; Study of PCR techniques used in tree improvement; Application of GENALEX ‘bolt on’ for excel, arlequin, PopGene and FSTAT for Wright’s F-statistics and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA).

  1. Clonal Forestry

Content: Introduction to Clonal Forestry. History of clonal forestry. Clonal propagation. Clonal planting. Strategies for clonal forestry for higher productive potential. Juvenility and maturation, rejuvenation and maintainance, regulation of phase changes, markers of phase changes. Breeding strategies using vegetative propagation- selection and breeding for extreme genotypes. Physiological research for higher productivity of clonal forest. Field design, testing and evaluation of clones. Genetic gains from breeding with clonal option. Clonal conservation approaches- management of populations for genetic diversity and gain. Biotechnological approaches for clonal forestry, Plant tissue culture, micropropagation, Rejuvenation of tissues from mature trees, Testing of Clonal fidelity using molecular markers.

  1. Forest Ecophysiology

Content: Forest environment interactions, Forest ecosystems, Geographic and climatic factors. Environmental factors influencing forest growth and productivity. Sun and shade plants. Influence of temperature, water stress and nutrient availability and disturbance in the forest on tree growth and forest productivity. Dynamics of forest ecosystems, energy, productivity and biomass. Decomposition and nutrient cycling. Stand structure and micro-climate, energy relationships canopy energy balance. Partitioning absorbed energy. Radiation penetration into and absorption by canopies. Air temperature and humidity in forests. Turbulent transfer process above forests. Transpiration and evapotranspiration from forest canopies. Estimation of ET. Stress – avoidance and tolerance mechanisms. Temperature stress – low temperature stress – physiology of resistance to frost. Heat stress, heat injury, heat avoidance and tolerance mechanism. Radiation stress, mechanism of shade tolerance, water logging, physiology of resistance to water logging. Drought stress, salt and ion stress.

Practical: Morphological, anatomical and physiological variations between sun and shade plants; Estimation of leaf area, LAI; Estimation of biomass production of trees of different species; Estimation of microclimatic elements as influenced by stand structure; Estimation of evapotranspiration; Measurement of radiation in different types of forest and agroforestry systems.

  1. Physiology of Woody Plants

Content: Introduction, Tree physiology. Growth, phases of growth, growth curve, factors affecting growth.- Wood formation. Plant cell as a structural and functional unit. Organization of cells and tissues, morphogenesis. Structure of leaves, stem wood, bark and roots in trees. Functions and process in plant growth and development. Photosynthesis, structure of photosynthetic tissues and organs, enzyme, energetics and factors influencing photosynthesis. Photorespiration, its mechanisms and significance, factors affecting photorespiration. Respiration, mechanisms, enzymes, energetics and factors influencing respiration. Respiratory quotient. Water relations of trees, absorption, ascent of sap. Translocation of solutes, phloem loading and phloem transport. Transpiration, mechanisms and factors influencing, regulating transpiration, antitranspirants. Mineral nutrition. Mineral salt absorption and translocation, deficiency and toxicity of mineral nutrients. Diagnosis of mineral deficiency. The enzymes, nomenclature and classification, structure and compositioned. Mode of action. Phytohormones, auxins, GA, cytokinins, ABA, ethlynene. Biosynthesis and biochemical activity of plant hormones. Synthetic plant growth regulators. Growth retardants. Nitrogen fixing trees, Nitrogen metabolism. N2 fixation, physical and biological. Nitrogen assimilation, Amino acid and protein synthesis. Fat metabolism. Carbohydrate metabolism.

Practical: Preparation of growth curves of different tree seedlings; Study of structure of leaves; Measurement of photosynthesis; Observing structure of plant cells and leaves in C3 and C4 species; Studying stomata in different tree species and working out stomatal frequency; Measurement of stomatal size in different tree species; Estimation of transpiration rates in different trees; Isolation and estimation of chlorophyll; Observing xylem vessel size variation in tree species; Estimation of plant water status by different methods; Nutrient deficiency symptoms in tree seedlings.

  1. Breeding for Insect Pest and Disease Resistance in Trees

Content: Need for disease resistance in forest trees, Process of infection. Variability in plant pathogens. Types of resistance. Inheritance of resistance. Disease resistance mechanisms in trees, Clonal resistance. Disease resistance breeding techniques. Techniques of isolating resistant genes; developing disease resistant transgenic plants. History and importance of insect pest resistance, types and mechanism of resistance. Insect-tree relationships. Basis of resistance: Induced resistance and acquired resistance. Defense mechanisms against insects. Factors affecting tree pest resistance. Breeding for insect resistance.

Practical: Disease progression in relation to resistance, disease resistance in clonal plantations and seed orchards, hypersensitivity and its mechanisms, disease resistance screening; Screening for insect pest resistance; chemical and morphological characterization of susceptible/ resistance tree species; Defence strategies of woody plants.

  1. Tree Seed Technology

Content: Trends and development in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate forestry and their influence on seed demand. Seed problems, limiting factors in tree propagation and afforestation. Ecological fruit and seed types – seasonality and periodicity of flowering and fruiting. Seed structure and chemical composition development and maturation germination breakdown of storage products endogenous hormonal regulation effect of stimulators and inhibitors. Dormancy its causes and breakage specific problems of seeds of woody plants. Determining optimal harvest maturity indices. Methods of seed collection and processing. Storage methods – loss of viability during storage. Dormancy and pretreatment and seed testing techniques. Quality seed production technologies – Seed stand/ seed product on area, pollen management in seed orchards. Seed transfer guidelines. Seed certification and legislation. Factors affecting seed longevity. Pre-storage treatment. Physiological change during ageing. Viability and vigor. Storage of orthodox, recalcitrant and pre-storage intermediate seeds, Fumigation and seed treatment. Seed fortification. Seed pelleting.

Practical: Identification of forest seed; Seed sampling, Seed quality testing- purity, viability and germination; Collection and processing of seeds/ fruit. Different storage methods; Pretreatment of seed; Seed fortification; Seed pelleting.

 Forestry– Forest Products and Utilization (FPU) (M.Sc.)

  1. Non Wood Forest Products Management

Content: Classification of non wood forest products like gums and resins, katha, dyes, tannins, oils, raw drugs, bamboos, canes and other products. Technologies for extraction of gums, resins, katha, dyes, tannins, oils, raw drugs and other products. Utilization of various non wood forest products and their scientific management for processing, value addition, marketing and disposal. Quality assessment of important products and their methods for storage. Important industries based on non wood forest products and their management.

Practical: Extraction of resins, gums, katha, dyes, tannins, oils raw drugs, bamboos, canes and other products; Value addition techniques for these products; Visit to non wood forest products based industries.

  1. Applied Wood Technology

Content: Physical properties of wood-wood density, specific gravity and methods of their determination. Effect of growth on density of wood. Moisture content and its measurement. Effect of sound on wood resonance. Color of wood, phosphorescence, fluorescence and residual luminescence. Thermal properties-conductivity and diffusivity. Electrical properties-conductivity, dielectric constant and current resistivity. Wood permeability. Mechanical properties-elastic constants, plasticity, Hook’s Law, Poisson’s ratio, elastic constants, modulus of elasticity, factors affecting strength properties, elastic theory of bending, shear stresses in simple beams, supported beams and cantilevers carrying concentrated and uniformly distributed loads, direct and bending safe working stresses and their evaluation. Standard tests of timber specimen’s-compression, tensile strength. Mechanics and Rheology of wood, abrasion, brittleness and hardness. Suitability coefficient and indices of different wood species. Vibration properties. Effect of environment on mechanical properties of wood. Effect of radiations on strength of wood.

Practical: Determination of density, specific gravity, strength, hardness, modulus of elasticity, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and dielectric constant of important domestic and imported timber species.

  1. Pulp and Paper Technology

Content: Raw material used in pulp and paper industries, characteristics and handling. Pulping process, mechanical, chemical, semi-chemical and biopulping. Pulp leaching, pulp treatment, defibering, de-knotting, brown stock washing, screening, cleaning, thickening, etc. Recycled fibers, supplementary pulp treatment and additives. Paper making, paper drying, reeling, external sizing, coating, calendaring, etc. Structure of paper, its characterization and measuring strength method, optional and structural properties of paper, Type of paper: coated paper, corrugated containers, printing quality of paper, ageing of paper. Rayon industry.

Practical: Visit to pulp and paper industry; Study of raw materials, techniques and pulp yield, making of paper and its quality determination.

  1. Composite Wood Technology

Content: Introduction to wood modification, its need and scope. Chemical modification of wood (acetylation, reaction with isocyanates, acetates, ethers, epoxides, etc.) Wood impregnation and compregnation, heat stabilization, wood densification. Modern trends in composite wood. Wood adhesives – types, characteristics and application. Plywood, laminated wood and inorganic wood composites- their manufacture, characteristics and application.

Practical: Use of different adhesives in plywood; Study of composite boards, study of anti-shrink efficiency of wood treated with different chemicals; Impregnation and compregnation of wood with chemicals.

  1. Forest Products Laboratory Techniques

Practical: Wood and non-wood product sampling, drying and storage. Estimation of extraneous components of wood. Analysis of volatile compounds; Estimation of chemical composition of wood samples (hardwoods, softwood and other lignocellulosic material) and ash; Separation of components by column, paper, and thin layer chromatography. HPLC techniques; Determination of strength properties of paper and wood composites.

  1. Agro-techniques of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops

Content: Importance of medicinal and aromatic plants in human health, national economy and related industries. Need of cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants as agricultural crops. Concept of organic farming, GACP and GAP in medicinal and aromatic crops production. Quality concern in plant based drugs. Introduction and importance, climate and soil requirements, cultural practices, harvesting and yield, important constituents of medicinal plants – Mulhathi, Senna, Gloriosa superba, Valeriana jatamansi, Swertia chirayita, Isabgol, Rauwolfia serpentina, Withania sominifera, Opium Poppy, Aloe vera, Satavar, Stevia rebaudiana, Safed Musli, Kalmegh and other important species of the region. Introduction and importance, climate and soil requirements; cultural practices; harvest and yield; important constituents of aromatic plants – Citronella, Palmarosa, Mentha, Basil, Lemon grass, Rose, Tagetes minuta, Lavender, Rosemary, Patchouli, Geranium and other important species of the region.

Practical: Morphological identification of listed plants and their economic parts, maturity indices; Preparation and layout of nursery and field, methods of seed sowing/ transplantation, cultural operations in MAP crops; Raising and harvesting of at least one crop grown in the region; Visit to government and private Pharmaceutical units/ Institutes in adjoining areas; Visit to large scale herb growing and processing units engaged in commercial cultivation and preparation of purified phytochemical/ standardized extracts; Visit to nearby marketing/ trade centres.

  1. Breeding Techniques and Improvement of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops

Content: Plant biodiversity, Major objectives of breeding of medicinal and aromatic crops. Plant introduction, domestication and germplasm conservation. Modes of pollination, male sterility, self incompatibility and apomixis. Production and maintenance of pure seeds of medicinal and aromatic plants. Principles of plant breeding for self pollinated and cross pollinated crops. Selection, Hybridization-techniques and consequences. Hetersosis and inbreeding depression. Different plant breeding methods for self pollinated, cross pollinated and asexually propagated crops. Mutation and polyploidy breeding. Distinctiveness, uniformity, stability testing in medicinal and aromatic crops. Breeding for quality parameters in medicinal and aromatic crops. Achievements and prospects in breeding of important medicinal and aromatic crops- Rauvolfia serpentina, Plantago ovata, Cassia angustifolia, Ocimum spp., Withania somnifera, Valeriana spp., Opium poppy, Gloriosa superb, Andrographis paniculata, Mentha spp., Geranium, Cymbopogon spp., and other important crops. Legislation in conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants- IPR issues in medicinal and aromatic plants.

Practical: Identification based on morphological features; Pollen viability and germination testing; Stigma receptivity; Field practice in emasculation, selfing and crossing in different medicinal and aromatic crops; Determination of mode of pollination and hybridization in different medicinal and aromatic crops.

  1. Chemistry and Processing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Content: Organic compounds and their classification such as aliphatic, aromatic, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, heterocyclic compounds and carbohydrates. Primary and Secondary plant metabolites and theurapeutical uses of phytoconstituents such as anthraquinones, steroidal and triterpenoidal glycosides, phenolic compounds, lipids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Basic principles and extraction techniques of different phytoconstituents. Analysis of active principles using TLC, HPLC, Gas chromatography, etc. Quality standards in herbal products. Drug descriptors for medicinal and aromatic plants. Postharvest processing-drying, grading and storage. Extraction techniques of essential oils and their quality analysis.

Practical: Use of thin layer and column chromatography during extraction and purification of phytopharmaceuticals; Preparation of active constituent enriched extracts; Extraction of Essential oils and their quality evaluation; Preparation of concretes and absolutes. Use of HPLC and GC in quality evaluation.

  1. Wood Identification

Practical: Study of planes of wood, gross features and physical characteristics of important woods; Identification of different types of cells and tissues; Anatomical studies of soft and hard woods. Anatomical studies of reaction wood; Classification of timber using dichotomous key; Modern timber identification techniques.

  1. Chemistry of Forest Products and Industries

Content: Importance of forest based industries in relation to Indian economy. Role of Chemistry in relation to forest products. Classification and description of different forest based industries – pulp and paper, composite wood, furniture, bamboo, sports goods, pencil making, match box and splint making. Use of lesser known wood species for commercial purposes. Cell wall constituents. Chemistry of cellulose, starch, hemicelluloses and lignin. Extraneous components of wood – water and organic solvent soluble. Chemical composition of oleoresin from major pine species. Structural difference among different gums (arabic, ghatti, tragacanth, etc.). Chemical nature and uses of volatile oils, tannins, katha and cutch and important forest based dyes and pigments.

Practical: Estimation of cell wall constituents – Hemicelluloses and lignin; Extraction of essential oils, resins and tannins; Wood pulping. Acetylation of wood; Visit to nearby forest based industries.

  1. Wood Chemistry

Content: Chemical composition of wood: Cell wall constituents- cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, peptic substances, etc. Volatile oils and extractives, cellulose derivatives and their applications. Hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Pyrolysis and gasification of wood.

Practical: Extraction of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash content of wood.

  1. Wood Physics

Content: Wood density, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties of wood. Mechanics and Rheology of wood, elasticity, plasticity and creep (tensile compression and bending strength) Toughness, torsion, shear, hardness and abrasion strength. Acoustic and acousto ultrasonics based non-destructive evaluation technique.

Practical: Determination of wood density; Study of thermal, electrical and acoustic properties of wood; Determination of tensile and bending properties of wood.

  1. Wood Seasoning and Preservation

Content: Wood water relationship, absorption behaviour and wood drying, Refractory and non refractory behaviour of wood, Wood seasoning, types- air, kiln and special seasoning methods like steaming, chemical, high temperature drying, vacuum drying and water conditioning. Defects of timber- natural, seasoning defects, defects due to external agencies, machining defects. Effect of defects on utilization. Detection and diagnosis of discolouration and decay in wood: decaying agenciesfungi, insects, borer, etc. Wood preservation: preservatives and treatment processes. Advantages and safety concern of wood preservatives, fire retardants. Graveyard test and anti-fungal activity of wood. Bio-preservation.

Practical: Determination of moisture content and swelling coefficients of different woods; Comparative studies on air and kiln dried woods; Analysis of decayed wood for physical and chemical parameters; Treatment of wood with different types of preservatives. Graveyard test.

  1. Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops

Content: Modes of reproduction in MAP crops and their relevance in maintaining genetic purity of crops. Concept of quality seed production and maintenance. Soil fertility, essential nutrient elements- functions, deficiency symptoms, availability and factors affecting their availability. Soil micro-organisms and their role in organic matter decomposition. Importance of pH and C:N ratio in plant nutrition. Concept of bio-fertlizers and their potential for use in medicinal and aromatic crops. Essentials of nursery production, criteria of site selection, and types of nursery, establishment of a model nursery. Nursery raising of medicinal plants. Tissue culture technique and in-vitro propagation of important MAPs. Plant protection measures in medicinal and aromatic crops, Quality parameters of seedlings and nursery stock.

Practical: Asexual/ vegetative reproduction techniques- cutting, budding, layering, etc.; Methods of seed collection and storage techniques; In-vitro propagation techniques; Determination of pH, organic matter and N,P,K from soil.

  1. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Health Care Systems

Content: Concept of Health Care systems. Brief introduction to Ayurveda, Unani, Sidha, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Naturopathy, Electrohomoeopathy, etc. Important medicinal plants used in treating various diseases in modern and complementary systems. Biological activity of selected medicinal plants. Methods of preparing poultices, decoctions, powders, tinctures, active content rich extracts.

  1. Pharmacognosy of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Content: History and scope of pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical products. Classification of natural drugs. Chemical nature of drugs. Pharmacognostic analysis of drug plants based on botanical, chemical and histological features. Evaluation based on pharmacopoeial standards for both single drugs and compound formulations most commonly used in different systems of medicines. Pharmacognostic features of Sarpagandha, Jatamansi, Ashwagandha, Turmeric, Punarnava, Ephedra, Gymnema, Senna, Amla, Gokhru, Isabgol, Black pepper, Banafsha, Arjun or any other commercially species specific to the region.

Practical: Identification of drugs by morphological characters; Physical and chemical tests for evaluation of drugs; Gross anatomical studies of Ginger, Ashwagandha, Senna, Gentiana, Kalmegh, Sarpagandha, Mulhathi, Aconitum species or any other important species relevant to the region. 

Forestry– Forest Resource Management (FRM) (M.Sc.)

  1. Forest Biometry and Management

Content: Measurement of tree parameters. Estimation of volume, growth and yield of individual tree and forest stands. Preparation of volume tables and its application, yield and stand tables. Forest inventory, Sampling methods adopted in forestry, Use of GPS in forest inventory. Measurement of stand density. Simulation techniques. Principles of forest management; scope and object of forest management, ecosystem management, development of forest management in India. Site quality evaluation and importance. Stand density measurement. Forest valuation and appraisal in regulated forests. Growth and yield prediction models – their preparation and applications.

Practical: Calculations of volume of felled as well as standing trees; Volume table preparation; Application of sampling procedures; Handling of GPS; Preparation of yield and stand table.

  1. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils

Content: Forest soils – distinguishing features, soils and vegetation development, physical and chemical properties- Types and properties of soils under different forest ecosystems. Forest floor – Organic horizons- litter dynamics- humus – types- organic matter decomposition-mineralization and immobilization of organic matter- nutrient cycling significance of C:N ratio, soil pH. Forest soil biology – soil fauna – nitrogen fixation – rhizobium-tree legume symbiosis Frankia x non-legume symbiosis, nitrification and denitrification in forest ecosystems. Micorrhizal associations in forest soils. Nursery soils, problem soils, mineral nutrition, acidic deposition effects, fire effects and management interventions of forest soils.

Practical: Study of the soil profile; Mechanical analysis; Determination of pH; Organic C, CEC and available, Micro and macro nutrients; Manurial schedules for different soils.

  1. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System in Natural Resource Management

Content: Satellite remote sensing and recent developments in geomatics, different satellite missions of India and abroad. Spatial and spectral resolution of different data products and applications. Geo-referencing of topo-sheets and satellite imageries, Satellite Image Interpretation, Digital Image Processing (DIP)-image registration, image enhancement, classification, supervised and unsupervised classification. RS softwares, Application of Remote Sensing in forest resource management-landuse and land cover mapping, vegetation mapping and change detection, forest biomass and carbon mapping and monitoring, forest damage as sessment (pests and diseases, mining, fire), forest fire risk zonation and mapping, Watershed delineation and mapping, wildlife habitat assessment, etc. GIS for the collection, storage and spatial analysis for geo-referenced forest resources data and information. Integration of spatial data analysis systems with knowledge-based systems and/ or simulation systems for the development of information/ decision support systems for forest management. GIS application in FRM.

Practical: Thematic layers build up, overlaying and their integration using ERDAS and Arc GIS software package; Interpretation of satellite data and digital image processing; Preparation of thematic maps; Preparation forest biomass and carbon map, fire affected areas assessment, preparation of change detection map, classification of LULC using ERDAS and Arc GIS softwares.

  1. Land Use Planning and Watershed Management

Content: Land use Planning: Concepts and techniques; Agro-ecological regions/ sub-regions of India; factors affecting land use; soil and land use survey through remote sensing techniques. Interpretation of soil resource map for land use planning; land evaluation methods and soil-site suitability evaluation for different crops. Watershed management concept- objectives, characterization, planning, execution, community participation and evaluation. Developing economically and ecologically sustainable agroforestry systems for watersheds; water harvesting and its efficient use; rehabilitation of watersheds. Suitable tree planting techniques in watersheds. Suitable trees/ shrubs and grasses for watershed for different agro-climatic regions. Watershed management cases studies. Drought and flood mapping and its relevance in designing sustainable cropping systems.

Practical: Study of Agro-ecological regions/ sub-regions of India; Soil and land use survey through remote sensing technique; Interpretation of soil resource map for land use planning; land evaluation methods and soil-site suitability evaluation for different crops; Watershed characterisation, planning, execution, community participation and evaluation. Suitable tree planting techniques in watersheds; Suitable trees/ shrubs and grasses for watershed for different agro-climatic regions. Watershed management cases studies; Drought and Flood mapping and its relevance in designing sustainable cropping systems.

  1. Forest Resource Economics

Content: Principles of microeconomics and its application in forest resource management. Demand, supply and marketing of forest products. Theory of capital and application in forest resource management. Domestic and international trade in forest products. Impact of soicio economic variables on forest appraisal and management decisions. Externalities and property rights. Natural and environmental resource accounting –methods and implications. Application of operational research tools in evaluating forest management alternatives in public and private forest planning and valuation.

Practical: Exercises on estimation of demand and supply functions; Biodiversity valuation, valuation of non-marketed forest products; Exercises on financial and economic appraisal of forestry projects; Exercises on marketing of forest products and international trade competitiveness; Computer applications for using programming techniques in evaluating forest management alternatives.

  1. Forest Ecosystem Services and Valuation

Content: Ecosystem Services (ES) basics, importance, history of ES and natural capital, classification of ES-provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services andtheir status and changes, drivers of change of ecosystem services, international conventions and charters on ES-Inter-governamental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and Millennium Ecosystem Services (MEA) Assessment– an overview. Linkages among biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well being. Quantification of ecosystem services-direct and indirect approaches. Ecological Economics: Valuation of ES, need for valuation. Use values and Non-Use valuesdirect value, indirect value, optional value, bequest value, existence value. Valuation methods-Market price based approach such as stumpage value method, productivity and cost based approaches such as replacement cost method and surrogate market and stated preference approaches such as stumpage value method, Hedonic Pricing Method, Contingent Valuation Method, Travel Cost Method, etc., Case studies in India and abroad. Challenges in valuation of ES. Governance and policy issues in ecosystem services, Payment for ecosystem services (PES), mechanisms of benefit sharing, eco-certification, Geographic Indications, Forest Stewardship Council, Landscape labelling. National and International initiatives in PES and on-going programs.

Practical: IPBES and MEA assessment; Valuation methods- direct and indirect; Case studies of PES in India and Abroad; Case studies on certification and geographical indications, FSC.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessments and Auditing

Content: Origin of EIA and historical perspective, scope and purpose of EIA; Key merits of environmental assessment in regulating the state of environment. Global experience in EIA; Comparative review of EIA systems in different countries and regions. Salient features of EIA legislation and other statutory obligations. Environmental decision making in India Environmental clearance procedures and national requirements. Flow charts showing key steps; Methodological approaches and tools for key stages in the process: Screening (classification of developments and stage to determine the level of EIA, exclusion and inclusion lists of projects, different approaches to screening) Scoping (scoping steps, guidance and tools, and stakeholder involvement), Impact prediction and evaluation (approach for baseline development and methods of impact identification-checklists, Matrices, Networks). Introduction to various impact assessment methods: checklist, matrices, networks, indices and weight scaling techniques and their scope and limitations. Prediction and assessment of impact on the land, air, water, noise, biological and socioeconomic environments Mitigation: definitions and hierarchy of measures including avoidance, reduction, rectification and compensation enhancement approaches, principles and concepts of offsets, type of offsets. EIA administration and practice. Cost and benefits of evaluation of EIA; understanding strengths and limitation of EIA. EIA standards; risk assessment; potential impact to water and air pollution.

Practical: Methodological approaches and tools for key stages in the process: Screening (classification of developments and stage to determine the level of EIA, exclusion and inclusion lists of projects, different approaches to screening) Scoping (scoping steps, guidance and tools, and stakeholder involvement); Impact prediction and evaluation (approach for baseline development and methods of impact identification-checklists, Matrices, Networks), EIA of development projects, EIA of restored mine lands, Undertaking an EIA: case studies for agroindustries.

  1. Forest Policy, law and International Conventions

Content: Forest policy – Relevance and scope; National Forest Policy – 1894, 1952 and 1988 Forest laws; Indian Forest Act 1927, general provision and detailed study; Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Wildlife Protect Act, 1972 Important Forest Rules and Guidelines; Indian evidence act applied to forestry matters, Legal definitions; objectives of species forest laws. History of environmental policy in India. Constitutional and legislative provisions— constitutional provisions and the environment, Environmental protection and fundamental rights, Digest of environmental legislation (Interpretation of environmental statutes, Environmental protection Act, 1986; Biodiversity Act, 2002, Schedules tribes (Recognition of forest rights), Act, 2007. Judicial remedies and procedures, public interest litigations, Intellectual Property Rights (Patents, Copy rights, Trade mark, Trade secrets), freedom of information, and right to know. Important case studies and landmark judgments. Case studies of different forests divisions/ areas of India. International conventions of forestry issue. e.g. Role of international treaties like CITES, IUCN, RAMSER, CBD, etc.

  1. Global Climate Change Impact, Mitigation and Adaptation

Content: Definition and concept of climate change and variability; global warming and dimming; science and politics of climate change and international conventions; evidence, scenario and causes of climate change. Greenhouse gases and mechanism of their production and emission from various agro-ecosystems, source and sinks of GHG; warming potential and contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming, greenhouse effect; monitoring of greenhouse gases. Impact assessment of rise in atmospheric temperature and CO2 on growth, physiological processes, productivity and quality of different vegetation types, soil health, water availability, insect pest dynamics, crop production, milk and inland and marine fish production; climate change and loss of biodiversity; spatial and temporal changes in forest and plantation productivity and agricultural production in context of climate change. Adaptation and mitigation options to climate change; carbon sequestration; modelling climate change and its impact on forests. International summit, conferences, protocols and negotiations on climate change; clean development mechanism; carbon trading, credits, footprints and govt. strategies and policies on climate change management. Recent techniques for assessing the impact of high temperature on tree species and crops, recent techniques for assessing the impact of CO2 fertilization on productivity, recent techniques for assessing the impact of elevated CO2 on tree species.

  1. Participatory Approaches in Forest Resource Management

Content: Participatory approaches- Participatory planning- Participatory data collection, research and project preparation; Participatory implementation- group approaches for implementation of projects and programmes; Participatory monitoring; Participatory evaluation- Concurrent and ex-post evaluation; Peoples’ participation community mobilization. Concept of Social Research, Traditional methods of doing research, Action Research and Participatory Research. Scope and importance of Qualitative Data. Construction and Methods of Data Collection. Different types of Sampling. Interview Techniques. Qualitative methods- Sociometry, Case Studies, observation, coding and content analysis. Participatory Methods of Data Collection-Concept and Need of Data, Information, Appraisal; Various methods of Data Collection, Interpretation of Qualitative and Quantitative Data. Origin of Participatory Methods, FSA, Rapid Rural Appraisal. Key informants, selection of key informants .Semi-structured interviews, Question guide/ checklist and other relevant methods and their applications in forestry and natural resource management. Objectives of PRA.The Logic and merits of the PRA. Challenges/ constraints of PRA. Major methods of PRA. The fundamental concepts of PRA. Principles of PRA. Operational guidelines for organizing PRA at village level. PRA and PLA – Concept, Methods, Tools, Interpretation and Techniques. Other relevant participatory approaches like RRA, PANR, etc. Emerging tools used for PRA (ICT, GIS, GPS,


Practical: Visit to selected forest areas to undertake and understand various participatory research methods including participatory rural appraisal techniques like social mapping, resource mapping, Venn diagrams, transect walk, time lines, etc.

  1. Management of Tree Insect-Pests and Diseases

Content: Principles and methods of integrated pests management; Insect attractants and repellents; male sterility techniques. Important insect pests of nurseries, plantations, avenue trees and their management. Insect pests of seeds of forest trees and their management. Principles of tree disease. management; Integrated forest protection; development of disease management system. Important diseases of nurseries, plantations and avenue trees and their management, Mycoflora of seeds and their management.

Practical: Collection and identification of insect pests and non-insect pests; Inspection and collection of insect damaged plant specimens; Preparations of different pesticides; Application of pesticides; Collection, preservation and identification of tree diseases, forest nursery and plantation; Isolation and characterization of tree pathogens; Preparation of fungicidal solutions; In-vitro efficacy and In vivo efficacy assessments.

  1. Forest Ecology, Biodiversity and Management

Content: Introduction to forest ecology, forest population, forest community dynamics, forest community structure and analysis, forest productivity on a global scale, ecology of forest landscapes spatial heterogeneity; Hierarchy issues in ecology. Biodiversity-an overview; genetic, species and ecosystem diversity; determinants of biodiversity. Higher plant diversity, species richness and endemism. Managing plant genetic resources: Basic science issues – genetic vulnerability and crop diversity, crop diversity-institutional responses, in situ conservation of genetic resources, the science of collecting genetic resources, the science of managing genetic resources, using genetic resources, biotechnology and germplasm conservation, etc. Complementary strategies for plant biodiversity conservation. In situ conservation of wild species in nature reserves, in situ conservation components, factors influencing conservation value, national plan for in situ conservation. In situ conservation of Forest and agro-biodiversity on-farm: importance of on-farm conservation initiatives, overview of the types of information necessary in the design of an on-farm conservation programme. Managing plant genetic resources: policy issues (exchange of genetic resources: quarantine, IPR; genetic resources: assessing economic value; conflicts over ownership, management and use; national and international treaties/ legislations: CBD, IT-PGRFA, GPA, PVP and FR Act, Biodiversity Act, etc.). International instruments concerning agro-biodiversity, Agenda 21, convention on biological diversity (CBD), FAO and global system of PGR, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for food and agriculture (ITPGR), Global Plan of Action, TRIPS agreement and IPR protection of life forms.

Practical: Study of forest community structure and its successional status; Estimation of productivity of forest ecosystem; Trip to different regions of the state to study forest vegetation, Collection and preservation of specimen; Methods of vegetation analysis, Measurement of biomass and productivity; Quantification of litter production and decomposition; Visit to national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, botanical gardens and arboreta.