M. Sc. Fisheries
Aquaculture (AQC) (M.F.Sc.)
- Freshwater Aquaculture Production Systems
- Coastal Aquaculture and Mariculture Farming Systems
- Hatchery Technology for Finfishes and Shellfishes
- Aquaculture Policy and Planning
- Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology
- Soil and Water Quality Management in Aquaculture
- Therapeutics and Health Management in Aquaculture
- Larval Nutrition and Live Feed Production
- Aquaculture Engineering
- Open Water aquaculture
- Commercial Ornamental Fish Breeding and Culture
- Computer Application in Aquaculture Data Processing
- Inland Saline Aquaculture
- Multilevel Integrated Aquaculture Systems
- Coldwater Aquaculture and Recreational Fisheries
- Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
Fisheries Resource Management (FRM) (M.F.Sc.)
- Sustainable Fisheries Management
- Fish Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
- Climate Change and Fisheries Resource
- Fish Stock Assessment
- Trophodynamics in Aquatic Systems
- Reproductive Biology of Finfish and Shellfish
- Developmental Biology of Finfish and Shellfish
- Modern Techniques in Fisheries Biology
- Bio Systematics of Aquatic Fauna
- Inland Fisheries Resources Management
- Marine Fisheries Resources Management
- Advanced Fish Anatomy and Physiology
- Advanced Fish Anatomy and Physiology
- Field techniques in Fisheries Resource Management
Aquatic Environnent Management (AEM) (M.F.Sc.)
- Inland Aquatic Resource Management
- Chemical Interactions in Aquatic Environment
- Analytical Techniques in Environnemental Sciences
- Climate Change: Impact and Management
- Aquatic Pollution and Management
- Coastal Ecology and Coastal management
- Aquatic Microbiology
- Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity
- Plankton Ecology and Trophic Dynamics
- Environmental Biotechnology
- Fisheries Oceanography
- Utilization and Management of Aquatic Algal Resources
- Restoration Ecology
Fish Genetics and Breeding (FGB) (M.F.Sc.)
- Principles of Genetics and Breeding
- Population and Quantitative Genetics
- Principles of Selection and Selection Methods
- Fish Breeding Plans
- Conservation of Fish Genetic Resources
- Bioinformatics and Computer Applications in Fish Genetics
- Molecular and Cytogenetics
- Cell and Tissue Culture
- Molecular Breeding
- Microbial Genetics
Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology (FNT) (M.F.Sc.)
- Principles of Fish Nutrition
- Nutrient Digestion and Growth
- Feeds and Feed Technology
- Nutritional Energetics
- Nutritional Requirement and Feeding Management
- Feed Ingredients and Additives
- Shellfish Nutrition and Feeding
- Protein Nutrition
- Lipid Nutrition
- Carbohydrate Nutrition
- Vitamins and Minerals Nutrition
Aquatic Animal Health Management (AAH) (M.F.Sc.)
- Principles of Aquatic Animal Health Management
- Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
- Viral Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
- Parasitic Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
- Fish and Shellfish Pathology
- Fish and Shellfish Immunology
- Principles of Fish Pharmacology and Therapeutics
- Non-Infectious Diseases and Disorders of Finfish and Shellfish
- Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance
- Aquatic Wildlife Health
- Disease Diagnostic Techniques
Fish Biotechnology (FBT) (M.F.Sc.)
- Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
- Concepts of Cell Biology
- Gene Structure and Regulation of Expression
- Genetic Engineering
- Bioinformatics Tools for Fisheries
- Fish Cell Culture
- Aquaculture Biotechnology
- Marine Biotechnology
- Molecular Markers
- Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogenetics
Fish Processing Technology (FPT) (M.F.Sc.)
- Low Temperature Preservation of Fish and Shell Fish
- Thermal Processing of Fish and Fishery Products
- Applied Fisheries Microbiology
- Fish Quality Assurance, Management and Certification
- Applied Fisheries Biochemistry
- Value Added Fishery Products
- Trade Regulations, Certification and Documentation in Export of Fish and Fishery Products
- Design, Maintenance of Fish Processing Plants and Instrumentation
- Microorganisms of Public Health Significance
- Molecular Techniques In Seafood Quality Analysis
- Packaging of Fish and Fishery Products
- Fish Byproducts and Waste Utilization
- Multivariate Analysis In Food Processing and Product Development
Fishing Technology and Engineering (FET) (M.F.Sc.)
- Advanced Fishing Gear Technology
- Advanced Fishing Craft Technology
- Responsible Fishing
- Refrigeration and Electrical Engineering
- Marine Engineering
- Introduction to Deep sea Fishing
- Fishing Harbour and Fleet Management
- Acoustics, Navigation and Seamanship
- Engineering Graphics
- GIS And Remote Sensing in Fisheries
- Sea Safety and Disaster Management
- Fish Processing Machinery
Fisheries Economics (FEC) (M.F.Sc.)
- Socioeconomics, Vulnerability and Fisherfolk welfare
- Fishery Regulations and Ecosystem Valuation
- Marketing Intelligence and Business Analysis
- International Fisheries Trade
- Fisheries Finance, Accounting and Control
- Introduction to Econometric Tools
- Management of R & D Innovations and Policy
- Economics of Fisheries Enterprises
- Fisheries Development Planning and Policy
- Fisheries Project Management
Fisheries Extension (FEX) (M.F.Sc.)
- Global Extension Landscape
- Communication and Journalism
- Knowledge and Innovation Systems
- Organizational Behaviour and Development
- ICT for Development
- Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment
- Aquapreneurship Promotion and Value Chain Development
- Sociology, Psychology and Community Organisation
- Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation
- Capacity Development
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (FPB) (M.F.Sc.)
- Fish Physiology
- Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology
- Fish Biochemistry
- Metabolism of Biomolecules
- Cellular and Molecular Physiology
- Crustacean Physiology
- Diagnostic Biochemistry
- Tools and Techniques in Biochemistry
- Principles in Fish Nutrition
- Nutraceuticals as Functional Foods
- Fish Pathology and Immunobiology
- Sensory Physiology
- Physiology of Fish Behaviour
- Pharmaco-biology of Aquaculture Drugs
- Eco-physiology of Fishes
- Fish Nutrigenomics
- Feeds and Feed Technology
- Nutritional Requirement and Feeding Management
Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes
Freshwater Aquaculture Production Systems
Content: Introduction- Present status, hindrances / problems / constraints and prospects for fish and prawn farming in global and Indian perspective. Development process, different supports and driving factors forproduction enhancement. Aquaculture systems- Extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture of fish and prawn. Partitioned aquaculture systems: raceways, tanks, flow-through systems, polyculture, and composite fish culture. Cages and enclosure. Peri-urban aquaculture systems: aquaponics, RAS, flow- through systems, bio-floc technology and land based aquaculturesystems. Aquaculture practices for cultivable species- Carps, Catfish, Snakeheads, Featherbacks, Tilapia, Mahseer, Trouts and freshwater Prawn. Grow out practices: pre stocking, post stocking management, harvesting and BMP. Other alternative species for high production. Species selection and crop planning. Economics of different fish farming systems Freshwater prawn farming- Monoculture practice of prawn in ponds, all-male culture and its advantages, polyculture with carps, prawn farming in inland saline soils. Nursery rearing, sex segregation, pond preparation, stocking, feeding and water quality management, disease prevention and treatment; Harvesting methods, handling and BMP. Integrated farming systems- Design, farming practices, constraints and economics of IFS of fish with vegetables, fodder, paddy, cattle, pig, poultry, duck, rabbit and quail. IMTA, Freshwater pearl culture, multi- level integrated system. Resource utilization and conversion of waste towealth. Wastewater-fed aquaculture- Water treatment methods, species selection, culture practices, harvesting and depuration process. Merits and demerits of wastewater fed aquaculture systems. Pre-requisites and precautions to be taken in the technology adoption.
Practical: Identification of commercially important cultivable finfish and shellfish species; Assessment of seed quality- stress test; pre-stocking factors evaluation and observation; Calculating carrying capacity of pond and stocking density; Check tray assessment and feed ration calculation; Sampling process and species wise growth estimation; Farm feed production and feeding; Lime and fertilizer requirement calculations; Farm visits and observation; Records keeping and data analysis; Modelling of different culture systems.
Coastal Aquaculture and Mariculture Farming Systems
Content: Introduction- Overview of coastal aquaculture and open sea mariculture; Present trend and future prospects in India. Practices in tropical countries, production levels and adoption of technology. Major bottlenecks in the practices Different farming systems- Cage and pen culture – types, site selection, construction, specifications for different species; Raft and rack culture – Principles, site selection, design and construction; operations and troubles shooting, threats and environmental issues; Land based aquaculture. Principle, design, construction and operations, rules and legislations Aquaculture of finfishes- Distribution, biology, seed collection, nursery rearing, weaning on artificial feed, culture techniques, feeding strategies, constraints and Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes Vol. 5 10 scope (Seabass, milkfish, mullets, pearlspot, sea breams, grouper, snapper, cobia, pompano). Shrimp farming (Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P. semisulcatus, andLitopenaeusvannamei)- Systems of farming – extensive, semi- intensive, intensive and super intensive (Biofloc, RAS, etc.); site selection, design and construction of culture systems, pond preparation, stocking, feed and water quality management, disease prevention and treatment; use of probiotics and prebiotics: harvesting and handling; continuous stocking and harvesting, staggered harvest, management of differential growth; shrimp farming in undrainable ponds. Mud crab fattening, production of soft-shell crabs and Lobster culture. Culture practices for marine molluscs and echinoderms-Present status and future prospects in India, Species cultured (mussels, oysters, pearl oysters, clams, abalone, sea cucumber) distribution, biology, practices followed in India and other Asian countries, farming methods–different types and culture methods; Problems and prospects. Seaweed farming- Major seaweed species of commercial importance; tissue culture of seaweeds, methods of culture; farming of agar, algin and carragenan yielding species; emerging trends in their farming in open seas; Integration with other coastal and marine farming systems.
Practical: Identification of commercially important cultivable finfish and shellfish species; Assessment of seed quality, rearing techniques; Feeds for nursery rearing, preparation and evaluation; pre-stocking factors in different systems, valuation and observation; Calculating carrying capacity of pond and stocking density; Cage construction, pen construction and identification of bottlenecks; Sampling process and species wise growth estimation; Construction of rafts and mollusc culture; Seaweed collection and identification; Farm feed production and feeding; Disease identification and management; Visits to cage sites and observation; Records keeping and data analysis; Modelling of different culture systems.
Hatchery Technology for Finfishes and Shellfishes
Content: Introduction- Current status; problems and prospects of seed of different shellfish species – freshwater and marine. Site selection and techniques of collection; identification and segregation of finfish and shellfish seed, handling, packing and transportation. Natural collection processes and their merits and demerits. Reproductive biology- Morphology and reproductive physiology; gonad anatomy; histology of gonad; Hormonal pathways and mode of control; Spermatogenesis and oogenesis; gametology (evaluation of milt and egg); Overview of current developments in reproductive biology of commercially important finfishes and shellfishes. Environmental and nutritional control of reproduction- Reproductive cycles, factors influencing reproduction (Photoperiod, change in water quality and quantity, temperature, lunar cycle, etc.), simulated environment and exogenous hormonal stimuli. Nutritional factors (types of feed - live and prepared feeds, nutritional quality, quantity, feeding management, feed utilisation, etc.) affecting maturation, spawning and nursery rearing. Induced spawning- Brooder development, quality and its health management, transportation of brooders, hormonal and environmental stimulation, use of different natural, synthetic hormones and analogues and their application; GnRH and LINPE models, PIT tagging, Canulation and volitional spawning, Estimation of spawning efficiency, cryopreservation of gametes. Hatchery management- Indian major and minor carps, exotic carps, catfishes, tilapia, mahseer, murrels, Trout, Seabass, milkfish, mullets, grouper, snapper, breams, pompano, and cobia. Seed production of commercially important prawns (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii), shrimps (Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P. semisulcatus, and Litopenaeusvannamei), crabs (Scylla serrata, Portunuspelagicus), spiny lobsters (Panulirusspp), mussels, edible oysters, pearl oyster and clams. Hatchery protocols, water quality management, larval rearing, estimations, troubleshooting in hatcheries, record keeping, packing and transport of seed, anaesthetics in fish seed transport. Quarantine and Hatchery protocols and biosecurity principles; sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures; Better Management Practices (BMPs); packaging and transport of seed. SPF brood stock development. Seed quality- Hatchery protocols, water quality management, larval rearing, estimations, trouble shooting in hatcheries, record keeping, packing and transport of seed, anaesthetics in fish seed transport. Quarantine and Hatchery protocols and biosecurity principles; sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures; Better Management Practices (BMPs); packaging and transport of seed. SPF brood stock development. Economics of seed production of different species.
Practical: Study of primary and secondary sexual characters; Brooder handling and morphological features recording; Gonadal development observation in carps and other cultivable finfishes; Histological observation of gonads and eggs; Estimation of GSI, Fecundity, Absolute fecundity, Egg parameters, Ovarian features; Collection and identification of cultivable finfish seed; Seed quality character identification; Observation and analysis of inducing agents; Induced breeding of fishes through various inducing agents; Evaluation of carp milt and egg; Cryopreservation of gametes; Preparation of brood and larval feed for different cultivable finfish; Packing and transportation of cultivable finfish seed; Visit to different finfish hatcheries.
Aquaculture Policy and Planning
Content: Sustainability issues- Environmental and Socio-economic issues; Exotic species introduction; escapement; contamination of indigenous gene pool; salinization of soil and water; environmental impact; over exploitation of wild stocks; mangrove deforestation. EIA, eco-system approach to aquaculture. Conflicts over water and land use; conflicts of interest between aqua farmers and fishermen, aquaculture andother enterprises; social issues; anti-dumping duties. Climate Change Impact- Weather elements of concern in aquaculture, Green house gases, global warming and their impact, Carbon sequestration in aquaculture, Microplastics in Aquaculture, measures and tools to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emission in aquaculture. Strategies for sustainability- Sustainability concept; food security; biosecurity; organic farming; responsible aquaculture; rotational aquaculture; bioremediation; role of biotechnology, traceability. Energy conservation. Application of renewable energy in aquaculture- solar energy, wind, and tidal energy, Seed certification, Sustainable use of antibiotics, minimal water exchange system, natural productivity, preservation of natural resources. Guiding principles for sustainable aquaculture- Coastal Aquaculture Guidelines Source Book, FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries; Holmenskollen Guidelines for Sustainable Aquaculture. BMP, CRZ implications, CAA and it’s role, ecolabelling, organic certification. PCB and State water bodies protection guidelines.
Practical: Visit to conventional aquafarm to see the management of used water; Survey on environmental impact on nearby aquaculture farms; Applications of remote sensing and GIS (geographical information system); Economic evaluation of aquaculture practices. Case studies on environmental issues of different types of farms.
Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology
Content: Introduction- Need for studying the nutritional requirements of cultivable fishes, feed formulation, Methods to study the nutritional requirements, and its need. Feed ingredients and Feed preparation- Commonly used feed ingredients in aqua feeds, Novel feed ingredients, estimation of quality of feed ingredients, Qualities of feed ingredients that determine feed quality, Selection of ingredients, Formulation of feeds, Feed processing and making. Different feed preparation methods. Types of feeds- Floating, semi-floating, sinking and stable feeds for aquaculture, Feed making methods for different feeds, Nutrient leeching in feeds, feed quality determination and feed making, Evaluation of feeds, Simulated system evaluation, lab analysis. Advanced feeds- High energy feeds, Alternative protein sources for feeds, maturation diets to enhance breeding efficiency, Larval feeds, bio availability in feeds, High FCE and economic benefits of feeding in the farming, Live feed enrichment, Bio-routing of nutrients, Chemo-therapeutants, Other growth promoting agents through live feeds. Evaluation of bio-accumulation and bio-utilisation. Feed processing technology- Common processes in feed manufacture; Grinding, Dosing, Homogenization; Extrusion cooking; Complimentary processes; Drying, crumbling, coating; Use of binders; Feed manufacture productions with high energy diets vacuum coating with lipid. Equipments used in feed manufacture; Pulverizer, grinder, mixer, pelletizer, crumbler, drier, Extruder/Expander, Vacuum coater, fat sprayer Quality control in fish feed manufacturing- Quality control procedures, raw materials, finished products; Geometrical, and physical feature; Mechanical characteristics in air, Behavioural characteristics in water, Feed economics and evaluation criteria: FCR, AFCR, SGR, PRE, ERE, PER, NPU.
Practical: Nutritional requirements determination for different species; Collection and analysis of different feed ingredients; Feed formulation with different feed ingredients; Feed quality analysis; Evaluation process in farms and labs; Visit to feed mills and feed making process; Economic analysis of feeding and non feeding systems; Identification of different feed additives; Observation of novel feeds and their utilization
Soil and Water Quality Management Inaquaculture
Content: Soil and water interaction- Physical and chemical properties of soil and water, Productivity vs. nutrient quality and quantity of soil and water; Aquatic microorganisms and their role in carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and sulphur cycles and impact on aquatic habitats andspecies. Soil and water quality monitoring- Soil and water quality standards; Equipment used for soil and water quality estimations, Automated systems for monitoring, Quality checks and management, aeration system for water quality management. Fertilizers and manures- Different kinds of fertilizers and manures, Fertilizer grade, source, rate and frequency of application, Biofertilizers, Use of treated sewage for pond fertilization, Ecological changes taking place after fertilizing, primary production, degradation of molecules in aquatic environment, Utilization of bioactive compounds by microorganisms. Soil and water conditioners- Biological indicators, Chemical and physical method of conditioning, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Minerals, Micro-nutrients and additives. Development of suitable soil and water quality- Cat clay/pyrite soil, Seepage, water treatment, Water filtration devices, Aeration, Chlorination, Ozonization and UV radiation, Algal bloom control, Eutrophication, Aquatic weed management, Water quality management in hatcheries. Waste water treatment practices- Waste discharge standards, Role of microorganisms in fish production, Fish health and fish safety; Microbial load and algal blooms.
Practical: Preparation of water quality charts and maintenance; Equipment used in soil and water analysis; Soil sampling, determination of soil moisture and bulk density; pond filling, Analyses of mud acidity and soil texture; Measurements of temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, transparency, turbidity and solids; Analyses of dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and hardness, phosphorus, nitrogen; Estimation of primary productivity and chlorophyll; Application of fertilizers and pond liming; Analysis of toxic elements, microbial techniques, Visit to effluent treatment plant.
Therapeutics and Health Management in Aquaculture
Content: Diseases of fishes- Bacterial, Fungal, Viral diseases of fishes in farm ponds, Natural waters, and incidental outbreaks, Nutritional disorders and environmental diseases, situations for disease outbreaks, Natural immunity and disease control. Control of diseases in aquaculture systems- Control measures for fish diseases, Environmental and nutritional support methods for disease management, Immune modulation, Immunostimulation, Use of vaccines and other preventive methods, Control of diseases in various aquaculture systems, their limitations and benefits. Therapeutics- Concept of therapeutics in aquaculture, effectiveness of medication, Drugs in aquaculture, Herbal therapeutants, Use of and disuse chemicals in aquaculture, Legislation and jurisprudence in therapeutics for aquaculture organisms, Shrimp farming and control mechanism, Drug therapies for ornamental fishes, Biotraceability of antibiotics use in aquaculture. Health management plans for hatcheries- Special features of hatcheries and health management of brooders, larvae, fry and young ones, Disease impacts on hatchery production, Disinfection protocol, Live feed crash due to diseases, Communicable diseases and their mechanism of spreading, Controlling outbreak of viral infections in all types of hatcheries, Economic benefits of investment in disease management. Modern treatment methods for fishes- Treatment methods currently in practice, isolation, Hospital tanks, Disinfection, Oral drug administration, immersion, Brooder treatment for immunity enhancement, mass treatment protocol, vaccination, advantages and disadvantages. Other health management aspects- Health improvement through feeds, Medicated feeds, Chemicals for treatment of external and internal diseases, Parasite treatment, health improvement after treatment, SPF, SPR and SPT seeds, their production protocols.
Practical: Identification of disease conditions: Pathological features observation in cultivable fishes; Collection of diseased specimens and identification; Developing treatment protocols for fishes; Analysis of environmental situation favouring disease outbreaks; Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes Vol. 5 18 Epidemic conditions in farms identification; Preparation of medicated feeds, validation and observation; Hospital tanks and management; Probiotics and prebiotics identification of their effects; Visit to hatcheries and farms to collect the specimens; Economics of different treatment methods.
Larval Nutrition and Live Feed Production
Content: Larval nutrition- Nutritional requirements of finfish and shellfish larvae, Nutritional quality of commonly used live feed, Comparison of live feeds against the prepared feeds, Nutritional disorders in larvae, Larval feeds utilization and advantages. Formulation and preparation of artificial feeds- For larval rearing, Micro particulate diets, Particulate and microencapsulated diets, High energy feeds, energy sparing nutrients in larval feeds. Biology of live feeds- Important live feeds and their biological features, Identification of new live feeds, Live feed use in different forms, Advantages and disadvantages. Important microalgae, rotifers, artemia, infusoria, cladocerans, copepods, oligochaetes, nematode and insect larvae. Bio-enrichment of live feed, Biofilm/periphyton and its use, Culture of single cell proteins and their nutritional quality. Fisheries Science: Aquaculture 19 Live feeds research in India, Around the world, New techniques developed in live feed use. Quality determination and cost benefit analysis, Production methods for different micro feeds, lab analysis of quality.
Practical: Collection, identification and isolation of live feed using various techniques, Preparation of various culture media, Preparation and maintenance of stock microalgal culture; Preparation of formulated feeds for rearing finfish and shellfish larvae; Mass culture of microalgae, cladocerans, copepods and rotifers; Hatching of artemia and enrichment; Culture of infusoria, earthworms and chironomidlarvae; Evaluation of different prepared feeds.
Content: Site selection- Criteria for site selection, Correction factors, Survey methods, Earth work calculations and cost estimation; water resources and their suitability, Suitability of soil from stability and productivity point of view; Land conversion effects and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Estimation in farm construction- Area and volume calculations for an aquafarm Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes Vol. 5 20 and water bodies, surveying and leveling (chain, compass and plain table survey, dumpy level and the odolite). Design, layout planning and construction of different types of production systems- Types of ponds, shape, size and orientation, Design of embankments, Ponds and tanks, Water distribution, canals and exchange structures (inlets, outlets, sluice gates, and monks); Design of feeder channels and drainage systems. Pens, cages (fixed, floating, semi-submerged and tray cages) raceways, Flow-through systems and re-circulatory aquaculture systems (RAS), aquaponics, Feed dispensers, Demand feeders and effluent treatment systems (ETS), Automation in aquaculture. Design and construction of hatcheries- (carp, freshwater prawn, shrimp and trout). Selection of aquaculture equipment and implement: Selection criteria and maintenance of water pumps, Water filtration systems, Principles of aeration, Aerators, Oxygen budgeting, Aeration grid, Automatic and demand feeders, Soil and water samplers. Aquifers, soil permeability, Hydraulic conductivity, Water budgeting, Water harvesting, Multiple uses of water, Economic impact of modernization in aquafarms
Practical: Estimation in construction, Model development, Visit to aqua farms and hatcheries, Survey - contour survey and mapping, chain and compass survey, Dumpy leveling, Evaluation of performance of seepage control measures, Layout planning and design of hatcheries (carp, freshwater prawn, shrimp and trout) and farms including their costing and evaluation, Estimation of pump capacity, Estimation of construction cost of ponds, Hatchery shed, Aeration devices and Evaluation of their capacity.
Open Water Aquaculture
Content: Introduction- Overview of global scenario of aquaculture in open waters, open water resources in India, Present status, Utilization, Prospects of production augmentation, Utilization of open water bodies for aquaculture to enhance production Fisheries Science: Aquaculture 21 Different culture systems- Cages, pens and enclosures in open waters, Seed stocking, quality and quantity, Cages for sea, estuaries, reservoirs, lakes and canals, Pen culture, Selection of site for sea farming, Different designs of open sea farming structures-construction of cages-bioengineering problems and solutions, Species selection for open water aquaculture, Rearing of fingerlings, advanced fingerlings and table size fish in open water bodies. Practices- Ranching in open waters, species quality and quantity, Natural feed enhancement, Supplementary feeding in cages, Stock assessment, Harvesting and conflicts with irrigation, Drinking water and hydroelectric projects on open water farming. Environmental impact of Open water Aquaculture- Salinity intrusion, Effluent, discharge, Eutrophication, Chemical residues including antibiotics and hormones, Destruction of natural habitat including paddy field and mangroves, Social issues and conflicts with other users on resources
Practical: Different types of cage materials, fabrication of cages and pens and their installation. Determination of stocking density in cages and pens, Feeding in cages and pens, Stock assessment in cages and pens; Environmental impact of cages and pens, Visit to cages and pen sites.
Commercial Ornamental Fish Breeding and Culture
Content: Introduction- Global status of ornamental fish trade, present status and prospects Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes of ornamental fish farming and trade in India, Indian ornamental fish diversity and its status, Prospects of production of new strains / varieties, Ornamental fish breeding techniques towards strain development. Design and construction- Self-maintained aquarium, species compatibility, High value species, Aquarium maintenance and care, Common aquarium plants and their identification, Gadgets used in freshwater and marine aquarium, aerators, Filters (UV, trickling and biofiltration), Protein skimmers, Ozonizer, thermostatic heater, Chiller, Lighting, Water conditioners, etc. Captive Breeding techniques- Mass production of commercially important freshwater and marine ornamental fishes, Nursery and grow out culture of commercially important ornamental fish species in Raceways, RAS etc., Hybrids development, Feed and feeding, Color enhancement through pigmented feed, Novel feeds, Common diseases, and control, Water quality management. Transportation and Trading of Ornamental Fishes- Medicines and chemicals used in the ornamental fish industry, Anaesthetics, packing, transportation and marketing strategies. Culture unit for entrepreneurship development, Socio-economic upliftment through backyard ornamental fish farming, Micro-traders in ornamental fish marketing.
Practical: Identification of common ornamental fishes; Plants and gadgets used in aquariums; Breeding of commercially important ornamental fishes, Visit to ornamental fish units, Aquarium fabrication, Setting and maintenance, Application and use of medicines/chemicals.
Computer Application In Aquaculture Dataprocessing
Practical: Computer application basics; Different common software installation and application; Identification of farm based software; Installation and application; Application of SPSS, SAS, SYSTAT and STATISTICA for analysis and presentation of fisheries data; Basic concepts of database management systems: Introduction to MS-ACCESS, ORACLE (RDBMS); Exercise on analysis of data using MS-EXCEL, SPSS, SAS, FISAT, SYSTAT and STATISTICA; Creation of Database using MS-ACCESS, ORACLE, Linear modelling of Feed formulation software installation and use.
Inland Saline Aquaculture
Content: Introduction- Inland saline waters, surface and ground water, Quality parameters of inland saline water in India, Global and national status of inland saline soils and underground saline water, Causes and process of salinization, geo-morphological changes, Problems of salinization, Potential for aquaculture. Soil and water characteristics- Comparison with coastal waters, Ionic amendment, water conditioning, Technological and engineering interventions for water quality improvement, Nutrient sparing and chelation in inland saline water. Potential candidate species- Sea bass, pearl spot, milk fish, mullet, shrimps, freshwater prawn, tilapia, cobia, pompano and selective carps for culture, Constraints and solutions, Alternate species with breeding possibilities, Metabolic interactions and growth promotion in altered water systems, Different farming systems. Socio-economic Importance of Inland Saline Aquaculture- Nutritional intervention in inland shrimp farming; Economics of various finfish and shellfish culture in inland saline arenas; Integrated inland saline aquaculture systems; Recommendations for an action plan.
Practical: Inland saline soil and water sample collection, analysis and ionic amendments, Visit to inland saline water farms, Case studies of inland saline farms, Evaluation of different systems with regard to species cultured, Trials with different species in known inland saline water bodies.
Multilevel Integrated Aquaculture Systems
Content: Integrated fish farming- Global status, integration with agricultural (paddy), horticultural crops (vegetable and fruits) and livestock (cattle, poultry, ducks, pigs and other terrestrial animals). Effective recycling of wastes, nutrient budgeting in different integrated farming systems. Production levels and economics. Bioprocessed manures in integration- Vermicompost, farmyard manure/ compost, biogas slurry, etc. Advantages of biomanures, Control of microbial interactions, Fermentation of manures. Concepts- Integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems and design of an IMTA unit, Aqua tourism. Aquaponics: concept, Principles, types and operation, Multilateral interaction and reserve management. Bio-resource flow in integrated aquaculture system- Discharge of nutrient wastes from integrated aquafarms; environmental effects, and potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, An economic analysis of different integrated culture systems.
Practical: Preparation of vermicompost; Analysis of nutrient value of different manures; Design of various integrated farming models; Different models of aquaponics; Nutrient analysis and management in aquaponics; Visit to integrated farms; Economics of different integrated systems with case studies.
Cold Water Aquaculture and Recreational Fisheries
Content: Introduction- Status of cold water fisheries in World with special reference to India, Biology, breeding and culture of trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo truttafario, Schizothoraichthys esocinus, S. longipinnis, S. niger, Schizothorax richadsonii), Mahseer (Tor putitora, Tor tor, Tor khudree), Common carp (Cypinuscarpio cummuinis, Cyprinuscarpio specularis). Specific environmental parameters pertaining to cold water fish culture and metabolic interaction, Feeds suitable for cold water aquaculture. Culture of coldwater fishes-Construction and management of coldwater fish farms, Effect of exotic fish introduction on indigenous fish fauna, Polyculture of exotic carps in mid hill region based on three Chinese carps, post-harvest and harvest issues in trouts with regards to cold water species, Special factors for consideration in cold water fish seed production and nursery rearing. Introduction to sport fisheries- Sports fishes and their life history, Equipments for sports fishing, fishing methods, area suitable for sports fishing, etc. Management and conservation of sports fisheries through aquaculture. Sport fisheries and tourism recreational aquaculture. Issues and Desired Interventions- Potential and Innovative Strategies for the Development of Cold water Aquaculture in India- problems encountered in fisheries development of rivers supporting cold water fisheries.
Practical: Identification of cold water fish species; Primary and secondary sexual characters in coldwater fishes; Different breeding methods for coldwater fishes; Identification of larval stages of trout and mahseer; Preparation of hatchery layout for coldwater fishes; Studies on different types of sports fishing equipment; Visit to cold water fish hatchery.
Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
Content: Introduction- Evolution of intensive culture technologies, Need for intensification in aquaculture, Land and water constraints, Conflicts between enterprises for water use, Need for RAS, Current status and prospects of RAS in world with special reference to Asian countries. System engineering- Basic needs for the construction of RAS, Design of RAS, water re-use methods, Water budgeting, culture tanks, shape and size, Special features, waste solids removal, Cornell dual-drain system, Settling basins and tanks- design, Fabrication and construction, Water collection and sludge removal Filters- Mechanical filters, Biofilters- trickling towers, Floating bead filters, Fluidized sand beds, Down flow micro-bead biofilter, Moving bed bioreactors; aerators. Management of RAS- Waste management, feeding management. Animal health management in RAS. Economic viability of RAS for various commercially important finfishes. Challenges in uplifting RAS practices.
Practical: Species for RAS; Calculating stocking density of fishes in RAS; Determining the controlling flow rate; Calculating required design flow rate for DO; Calculating tank sizes; Feeding management in RAS; Waste water management in RAS; Visit to RAS units
Fisheries Resource Management (FRM) (M.F.Sc.)
Sustainable Fisheries Management
Content: Inland fisheries- Major inland fisheries resource of the world-India-Overview-State of the fisheries- Fishing gears-and crafts- Catch composition Marine fisheries- Major marine fisheries resources of the world and india- Overview- State of the fisheries -Fishing gears -Catch composition-pelagic, Demersal, Oceanic, Deep sea Sustainability issues in fisheries-Ghost fishing- Overexploitation, Overcapacity, pollution, Habitat degradation/ biodiversity loss, Damming of rivers, Interlinking of rivers , Environmental flows; Fishing conflicts-Exotics; Trans-boundary issues, IUU fishing, Interlinking of rivers-Climate change, By catch and discards. Sustainable fishing- Components of sustainability, Indicators and goals of sustainability, Eco-friendly fishing, Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management-resilient fishery system Principle of fisheries management-Management approaches- By catch reduction- Rebuilding fishery, Rebuilding stock, Co-management- right based fishing-input control (fishing efforts, mesh regulations, fishing ban, licensing, capital investments, etc)-output control (catch quotas, minimum legal size, etc)- - Fishery reserve-technical measures, Spawning aggregates; trade agreement- Market-based instruments; Access right- Catch sharing-balanced fishing-Subsidy-certification and traceability-Sustainable management approach in lake, Reservoir and bheels. Responsible fishing practices Precautionary management -Fisheries Co-management- Right based fishing- Catch sharing access right- Balanced fishing.-Technical Guidelines of CCRF for responsible fishing; National and International treaties (National policy on marine fisheries-2017; National policy on inland fisheries-2019; MFRA’s; UNCLOS; UNFSA; IOTC)
Practical: Capture fisheries observation at lakes, reservoirs, river stretches, and marine landing centres, Species landings analysis, Interaction with managers Co-operative societies and stakeholders Fleet capacity assessment, Visit to fishery reserves to understand management, Field survey and observation of fisheries issues, Development of management plan.
Fish Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
Content: Fish diversity- Fresh water fish diversity- Marine fish diversity-Quantification and importance of biological diversity- abundance- distribution. Species concept for conservation related decisions- Unique species- umbrella species-flagship species, Keystone species, state fish concept, -Endangered species- extinction-recovery-CITES- NBA- Migratory stock- Essential Habitat-EBSA. Biodiversity conservation methods- IUCN criteria - Red List, Marine Protected Areas, Sanctuaries and Biosphere reserves, Establishment of National marine parks, in situ and ex situ conservation, Participatory approach- Conservation value index – criteria – Medicinal and biological, IBI –stock resilience-recovery. Wildlife protection act, Biodiversity Act, International treaties and conventions (CITES, CMS, RAMSAR Convention). Impacts of anthropogenic intervention on fisheries biodiversity- Exotic species, Damming of rivers, Construction of shore protection walls, Micro hydral power stations, Oil rigs. Aquatic biodiversity- Threats-Over exploitation, habitat reclamation, pollution, habitation, planning and management, tools for conservation, participatory approach-Impact of climate change on the ecosystem biodiversity, health and productivity Conservation biology of biodiversity- Concept of hotspots- Ecological integrity: Minimum population sizes, Inbreeding depression, Genetic tolerance of extreme conditions, Restoration of populations at risk of extinction, Conservation-management of invasive species- Economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystems
Practical: Identification of scheduled aquatic organisms and exotic species, Predators of endangered animals, Visit to various aquatic ecosystem for recording the biodiversity, Conservation strategies (case studies), Calculation of trophic levels, Biodiversity indices-IBI, Conservation value Index, Presentation of field study.
Climate Change and Fisheries Resource
Content: Introduction to climate science- Climate and biosphere, Climatic forcing factors, history of earth’s climate, Climate change: The physical basis in marine and freshwater systems; Anthropogenic activities, greenhouse gases; Role of oceans; Diagnosing climate change Scenarios. Climate change threats to fisheries resource- Temperature, Freshwater precipitation and sea level rise- Climate-induced degradation and loss of critical fish habitats. –Resilience - Tolerance limit-Temperature, pH and Salinity- Global warming and ocean acidification on fish early life stages. Climate change- Interaction between biodiversity - Effect on aquatic population–critical habitats-marine -freshwater-estuarine-high seas- endemic resources- Indicators of climate change - Climate change and invasive species. Impact of Climate change on fish- On fish biology, Reproduction and life stages, Distribution and abundance- Migration patterns-fish physiology- Disease prevalence, Adaptation strategies of fishes towards climate change. Models on climate change and capture fisheries- Trophic dynamics model- Methods for estimating effects of climate change on fishery resources-Long term monitoring- Survey on effects of climate change on fisheries resources –Developing vulnerability index. Policies and strategies on climate change- Impact of climate change on livelihood, Mitigation (emission reduction, life cycle assessment, carbon sequestration, improved governance) and adaptation strategies (resilience, vulnerability and risk assessment, institutional mechanisms) to climate change- Policy on climate change - IPCC, UNFCCC – Harvesting strategies - fishing right- Fishery resource management- key indicator species monitoring.
Practical: Fish production trend analysis- India- global, Thermal effect on fish biology and reproduction, Climate change effect on fish early life stages- Fish physiology. Biodiversity-Threshold limits-temperature-pH and Salinity, Generation of fish distributional map. Group discussion on climate change, impact and mitigation strategies, Presentation of case studies.
Fish Stock Assessment
Content: Concept of stock and fish stock assessment- Distribution and types of stock - unit stock-mixed stock- straddling stock; Characterization of stock (life history traits, truss network, environmental signals, otolith shape; genetic analyses, applied marks); Principle and general procedure of fish stock assessment; Features of tropical and temperate fish stocks; Role of fish stock assessment in fisheries management. Sampling and measurements for fish stock assessment- Data requirement; Methods of sampling commercial catch, Sampling design and fish measurements; Assessment of fishery under data poor conditions; Survey methods for inland fisheries. Concept of growth and mortality- Principles of growth; Growth parameters- estimation of growth parameters employing hard parts and size frequency, Separation of cohorts, Mortality -Decay curve; types of mortality; Estimation of total, natural and fishing mortality rates. Recruitment and gear selectivity- Timing and size of recruitment; Factors influencing recruitment; Principle and estimation of gear selectivity – trawl net and gill net selectivity; Eumetric fishing; Stock recruitment relationship– Cushing- Rickers- Beverton and Holt models. Fish stock assessment models- Analytical models: Cohort dynamics and life history; Virtual population analysis; Prediction models (Thompson and Bell model; Yield per recruit model and Relative Yield per Recruit model); Prey-predatory model; Surplus production models / Holistic models: Schaefer’s model, Fox model, Swept area method, Stochastic model, Estimation of technical reference point MSY and other yield base reference point; economic and social reference points, Bio- economic modelling, Economic models - MEY, Swept area method - Box model- Bayesian Stochastic models, Multispecies models. Trophic models- Ecosystem based models– Principles, Applications; Productivity models; Ecopath with Ecosim.
Practical: Cohort analysis; Characterization of fish stock, 11-measurements; Truss network analysis, Otolith shape estimation of growth and mortality parameters (hard parts/length based/age based), Gear selectivity, Stock recruitment relationship; Analytical models – VPA, Thompson and Bell model, Beverton’s Yield per recruit and Relative yield per recruit model, Holistic models - Schaefer and Fox models; Swept area method, MSY, Use of FiSAT, LFDA, CEDA, YIELD. Presentation of case studies on use of ecosystem models.
Trophodynamics in Aquatic Systems
Content: Food and feeding adaptations: Food and feeding habits of different types of finfish and shellfishes -Morphological and anatomical adaptation for feeding; Feeding behaviour-Ontogenic changes in food and feeding. Digestion : Food digestion - Energetics- Food partitioning- Larval feed- Gut development. Food web: Food web - food web in nearshore reef, Seagrass and unvegetated ecosystems - Biomarkers - Stable isotopes and fatty acids markers. Prey predator interaction : Prey density - Predator density—Prey predatory interaction forage theory—Species succession - Food availability - Fishing effect on prey and predator. Trophodynamics: Concept of trophodynamics-Methods in food and feeding analysis- Diet analysis -Diet breath- Diet overlapping indices- Energy flow and trophic indices and modelling- Calculation of trophic level. Application of information on trophodynamics in fisheries management: Trophodynamic indicators- Ecopath with Ecosim model, SEAPODYM model.
Practical: Morphological and anatomical adaptations in finfishes and shellfishes with different feeding habits. Analysis of gut contents, Gastro somatic Index, Use of indices in feeding, digestion and food consumption rates of fishes, Calculation of trophic levels- Mean trophic level, Comparison of mean trophic level between gears-seasonspace, Analysis of diet breath and diet overlap, Case studies using available data sets.
Reproductive Biology of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Fish reproduction: Types – Gonads - Sexual differentiation, Reproductive biology: Gonado Somatic Index, Fecundity, Length at first maturity-breeding migration- Environmental influence of breeding cycle. Male reproductive system of finfish and shellfish: Endocrinologyspermatogenesis- sperm morphology. Female reproductive system of finfish and shellfish: Endocrinology- Oogenesis- Ovulation- Atresia- Vitellogenesis. Physiological control of reproduction in finfish: Fish reproduction –Fishhormone- Hormone Dynamics- Maturation and spawning, Hormones in spermatogenesis, oogenesis, Yolk formation, Mechanism of sex reversal; Pheromone. hormone based induced reproduction. Physiological control of reproduction in crustaceans (shrimp, crab and lobsters): Maturation and spawning, spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Yolk formation, Mechanism of sex reversal- Eye stalk ablation. Physiological control of reproduction in molluscs: Maturation and spawning, Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, Yolk formation, Mechanism of sex reversal – sex Control; Early Embryonic Development Maturity cycle and hormone.
Practical: Sexual dimorphism, Study of reproductive organs in finfish and shellfish by dissection, Maturity stage observation, Length at maturity estimation- intra-ovarian periodicity, Dissection of reproductive glands; fish sperm quality analysis – morphology, quantification and motility; Egg quality analysis – morphology, fecundity estimation; Histological techniques- study gonadal maturity stages; Identification of moult stages.
Developmental Biology of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Fish eggs and larvae: Morphology and identification of eggs and larvae of commercially important finfishes, crustaceans, molluscs and echinodermsmorphometry. Methods in Fish eggs and larval study: Quantitative sampling of fish eggs and larvae; Spatial and temporal distribution, Dispersion of eggs and larvae, Effect of environmental parameters on eggs and larvae. Eggs and larval dynamics: Reproductive cycle in fish- Spawning – Environmental cues- Recruitment assessment-Natural food of commercially important finfish and shellfish larvae from egg to adult. Larval development: Developmental biology of fish- Shellfish-sea urchin- Stages of development- Cell fate and commitment, Embryonic induction, Differentiation— Organogenesis- Morphogenetic movements.
Practical: Identification of eggs and larvae commercially important species of crustacean and molluscan, Morphometry of eggs and larvae of finfishes, identification keys, Quantitative sampling- finfish and shellfish larvae; Food and feeding habits of larval stages of finfish and shellfishes.
Modern Techniques in Fisheries Biology
Content: Introduction: Advances in molecular technology – DNA extraction and PCR quality and size of DNA- Sequencing-RNA extraction. Electrophoresis: Principles – Types of electrophoresis- Identification of fish using agarose gel electrophoresis- SDS-Page- Staining protein gels- Digital electrophoresis analysis- Other electrophoresis techniques. PCR: Principle; PCR as a rapid detection method- Quantitative real-time PCR Multiplex PCR- Nested PCR -Developments in molecular genetic techniques in fisheries. Molecular genetic techniques in fisheries: Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics- molecular techniques in population studies. Molecular methods in taxonomy: Cytological and Molecular Systematics and DNA Barcoding-barcode analysis. Fish genetic markers and their applications in fisheries: Use of microarrays and RT-PCR- D-loop polymorphism analysis -Single Nucleotide Polymorphism - Restriction Length polymorphism analysis.
Practical: Molecular laboratory safety issues- Extraction of DNA/ RNA, Barcode generation and analysis, Phylogenetic tree construction using barcode, Allozyme variation, Protein assay -2D gel electrophoresis.
Bio Systematics of Aquatic Fauna
Content: Principles of taxonomy: Systematics, Taxonomy and Classification; Importance of taxonomy, Describing and naming of a new species, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and its amendments and rules of Binomial Nomenclature; Zoo Bank and its policies, Morphology, Morphometric, Meristic, Osteology and Soft anatomical characters. Classification of Commercially important finfish: Classification of modern fishes up to order and family levels - Elasmobranchii (Cartilaginous fishes) and Actinopterygii (bony fishes). Classification of Commercially important shellfish: Classification of commercially important invertebrate up to family level: Arthropoda (Prawns, Shrimps, Lobsters and Crabs); Mollusca (Gastropods, Bivalves, Cephalopods and Scaphopods); Echinodermata (Sea Cucumbers), Preparations of dichotomous key. Methods in taxonomy: Phylogeny and Zoo geography, Modern tools of taxonomy: Cytotaxonomy, Basics of biochemical taxonomy (Electrophoretic studies of muscle myogen, eye-lens protein, enzyme pattern and serology), PCR based methods and DNA finger printing, mitogene in fish identification. Identification of fish through auto-image processing.
Practical: Collections and preparation of field data; Preservation techniques of specimens: Morphology, Graphical representation and statistical analysis of meristic, Morphometric, Osteological and soft anatomical characters; Key Pattern – Dichotomous key – Type of keys –Dichotomous, Bracket, Indented, Branching, Pictorial and computer keys; Protocols followed for describing of a new species, Use of distribution maps; curation and sorting protocols, Visit to freshwater, brackishwater and marine waters (markets; landing centres) of the locality and inventorying of commercially important fishes, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata (diagnostic characters of the orders, families and species), Modern taxonomical tools. Cytotaxonomy: Karyotyping – preparation and identification of chromosomes, Electrophoresis studies (muscle myogen, eye-lens protein, enzyme pattern and serology), Molecular markers–PCR, RAPD, RFLP, Microsatellites, mini satellites and Mitochondrial DNA and their application in fish phylogenetic studies; Barcoding.
Inland Fisheries Resources Management
Content: Freshwater fisheries resources India-world: Ponds, Lakes, Bheels, Tanks, Estuaries, Brackish water lagoons, Wetlands, Biosphere reserves and mangroves and derelict water bodies their problems and management aspects, Assessment of carrying capacity of different inland water bodies; Water budgeting, Community participation in fishery resource management. Bheel fisheries resources of India: Open and closed bheels, Productivity conditions, Capture scenario, Prospects of culture based systems. Riverine fisheries resources in India: Present trend of dwindling fisheries resources, Direct and Indirect effects of human intervention in rivers, habitat modification and improvement (rehabilitation of channels and flood plains), Protection and restoration of fish movements (different types of fish passes and enhancement of fish migration), Management and repair of riverine vegetation, Stock enhancement strategies like introduction of new species, Pre- and poststocking management, Potential risk of stocking. Cold water fisheries of India: Present trends, Problems due to habitat destruction, Management aspects, Prospects of sports fisheries in India. Reservoir Fisheriesin India: Classification of reservoirs, Present productivity levels, Management practices. Estuarine fisheries in India: Classification of estuaries- Present productivity level potential; Problem – Management practices.
Practical: Freshwater fish identification, Tagging – different types of tags, Visit to nearest freshwater body; catching methods – catch data analysis on major freshwater resources- Bheels- Estuaries - Reservoirs – lakes, Biodiversity indices – Gear selectivity.
Marine Fisheries Resources Management
Content: Status of marine fisheries: Major fishing nations of the world, Major fishing regions, present trend of marine capture fisheries. Marine fish resources: Important finfish and shellfish resources in demersal and pelagic systems; Conservation strategies. Fishery management: Mud bank fishery- wadge bank fishery-Commonly used tools for input and output regulations, Principles of management of fisheries resources, Objectives of management, Issues and challenges of managing multigear fisheries. Sustainability: Principles, Socio-economic, Ecological, Biological and Legal issues- Fisheries co-management - Case studies of fisheries conflicts between sectors, states and nations, Conflict management. Fisheries and fishing methods in open waters: Inshore fisheries (up to 50 m depth), Offshore fisheries (50-200 m depth) -High sea fisheries. Conservation aspects: Marine Biodiversity of selected areas including coral reef conservation, Biodiversity principles, Categorization of species into endangered; Indeterminate and extinct varieties- Managing the highly exploited fishery resources.
Practical: Marine fishery resources – visit to nearest marine landing centres, Length frequency analysis – catching method, Catch data analysis on marine fishery resources of India. Closed season studies – gear selectivity.
Advanced Fish Anatomy And Physiology
Content: Principles of Fish anatomy: Study of internal anatomy of important groups of finfish and shellfish, Body form, swimming mechanisms and buoyancy regulation bioenergetics, strategies for buoyancy regulation- Fish behaviour and regulatory mechanism- alarm reaction-transduction mechanism, Sense organs and their functions. Hearing mechanism and specialization. Physiology of photoreceptors and pineal organ. Anatomy and physiology of digestive system: Digestive organ and their mechanism, Functions, Feed ingestion and feeding mechanism - Feeding mechanisms and their control, Effect of starvation. Anatomy and physiology of excretory system: Excretory organs in fish and shellfish and their functions, Mechanism of excretion of nitrogenous waste, Osmoregulation in freshwater fishes, Marine fishes, Elasmobranches, Crustaceans and molluscs. Muscle physiology: Striated and smooth muscle, Adaptations of muscles for various activities, Neuronal control of muscle contraction, Electric organs, Stenohaline and Euryhaline animals and their tolerance capacity. Endocrine and exoocrine glands: Hormones and their role in appetite, Osmoregulation, Calcium metabolism, Cardiovascular regulation and behaviour, hormone receptors, Endocrine disruption, Mechanism of hormone synthesis, Release, transport and action, Hormone receptors and their characteristics, Neuroendocrine regulation of gametogenesis, Maturation and ovulation processes. Adaptations to Stress: Basic concept of environmental stress, Acclimatization, Avoidance and tolerance, Stress and Hormones.
Practical: Dissection of different shellfishes and finfishes to understand their internal organs. Influence of temperature and salinity on metabolism, Display of visceral organs; dissection of fish bones and skeleton, Oxygen consumption in relation to body size/ stress/anesthesia, Chronic and acute responses to environmental changes (temperature and salinity) on metabolism, Collection and analysis of body fluids, blood sampling; gamete collection, Oxygen consumption in relation to body size/ stress/anesthesia, Haematology, Acute and chronic stress markers (estimation of glucose, cortisol, total protein, AST, ALT, LDH), Analysis of digestive enzyme activities. Measuring osmoregulatory parameters. measuring reproductive hormones; Audio visual recording of behaviour in simulated experiment.
Fish Histology and Histochemistry
Content: Fundamentals of histology: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, Nervous and other specialized tissues.- Tools in histology: Principles, design and functioning of microtomes, Automated microtomes, Ultra microtome, Cryostat, Problems and troubleshooting. Techniques in histology: Sample preparation, Obtaining tissue samples, Handling reagents, Fixatives (types of fixatives and effect on tissue), Processing of fixed samples, dehydration (procedure and significance), Embedding, Block making, Staining (staining methods histochemical and immunohistologial methods), dyes and Dye binding reactive groups, Mordants and mordanting, Temporary and permanent preparations, Whole mount preparation. Fundamentals of histochemical techniques: Principle and practice, Detection of glycogen, Neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides, Detection of basic proteins, Detection of specific and nonspecific lipids, detection of nonspecific esterases, Detection of acid /alkaline phosphatase. Systemic Histology: Study of Microscopic structure of the organs of digestive, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive, Nervous and cardiovascular systems, Sense organs, endocrines and Lymphoid organs of fish and shellfish.
Practical: Histology slide preparation- studying the general architecture of various tissues staining- vital staining- histochemistry, Enzyme detection: acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Esterases, Nucleic acid staining: Methyl green, Pyronine, Feulgen stain. Study of different types of tissue with help of permanent slides, Effect of fixatives, fixation of tissues, Block preparation and sectioning, Mucolpolysaccharide staining, AB pH 1.5, 2.5. Proteins and lipid staining, Microscopic examination and identification of tissues.
Field Techniques In Fisheries Resource Management
Practical: Planning a fish survey- survey protocol, Fishery dependant sampling- Netting and trapping: Seine nets; Trawl nets; Hand nets, throw nets and push nets; Gill nets and trammel nets (Set nets); Traps- hook and line, Assessing CPUE, Fishery independent sampling Snorkelling- SCUBA survey – line transect- manta survey- Tagging, Underwater Visual Census; Hydro–Acoustics-Electrofishing, Egg and larval collection-abundance estimation.
Aquatic Environnent Management (AEM) (M.F.Sc.)
Inland Aquatic Resource Management
Content: Types of inland aquatic resources: Concept of watershed; Lacustrine, Riverine, Wetlands, Floodplains, Swamps and Ponds, Habitat characteristics, Flora and Fauna, Economic importance; Relationship between productivity (primary and secondary) and fish yield. Wetlands: Trophic classifications, Functions, Degradation of wetlands (causes consequences; Constructed wetlands; Restoration, Conservation and management of wetlands, Ecological services and livelihood from wetland. Ecological engineering: Concept, Application and restoration; Resource enhancement; Biomanipulation - Top-down and bottom-up methods; Integrated Environment Management (IEM) Programme, Ramsar convention. River continuum concept and new paradigm shift, River linking; Mapping of aquatic resources using remote sensing and GIS. Water budget and Environmental flow, Its significance in water conservation and ecology, Environmental Economics and auditing, Ecosystem approach to resource management. Wasted and degraded resources, Coastal and inland saline areas, Adaptations of organisms, restoration/remediation strategies, Prospects of gainful use of available technologies.
Practical: Collection, preservation and analysis of flora and fauna (plankton, macrophytes and benthos) of wetland/degraded aquatic ecosystem. Calculation of shoreline development index and morphometry. Calculation of Morpho-edaphic index. Field visits to selected lakes/wetlands/degraded/restored ecosystem.
Chemical Interactions in the Aquatic Environment
Content: Basic principles: Chemical kinetics, Chemical equilibrium and Redox chemistry, Solubility concept, Dissolution kinetics. Sediment properties: Weathering of rocks; Soil formation, Soil profile, Mineral weathering; transformation, weathering products, Structure of oxide and silicate minerals, Sources of charge, adsorption on to clay minerals of major cations and anions, Double layer, Ion exchange - concept and source of cation exchange capacity (CEC), Sediment texture. Nutrient dynamics: Nutrient holding capacity of sediments and fixation, Processes controlling elemental cycling. Transport of nutrients: Availability of Nutrients and productivity inaquatic ecosystem. Processes in the degradation and conversion of organic matter, Humus and biogeochemical substances. Fate of Contaminants: Degradable and non-degradable contaminants, Speciation and transport of contaminants, Bio-availability; Bio-accumulation and
Practical: Sample collection techniques Determination of physicochemical parameters of sediment – pH, electrical conductivity, redox potential, soil texture, bulk density, particle density, porosity, total and organic carbon, total and available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and micronutrients; C: N: P ratio, CEC.
Analytical Techniques in Environmental Sciences
Content: Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques including Gravimetric and volumetric analyses used in environmental science, Sampling techniques and procedures, Factors affecting the choice of analytical techniques, Interferences and their minimization, Laboratory safety measures. Photometric techniques: Theory, instrumentation and application of spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, AAS, FT-IR, ICP-MS, XRD, XPS, Biosensor, Microscopic Techniques etc. Theory and applications of electrophoresis, Principles and uses of ultra-centrifugation, Tracer Techniques, Isotopes in environmental analysis. Separation techniques: Chromatography – theory, instrumentation and applications of thin layer, paper, ion-exchange, size exclusion, high performance liquid and gas, Methods of preparing biological samples for chromatographic analysis, GC-MS. Bioanalysis techniques: Immunoassay – Principle, methods and applications and Biosensors – components, characteristics, applications, impacts and challenges. Nanotechnology: Preparation of nanoparticles, characterization and applications
Practical: Estimation of environmental parameters by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Estimation by AAS, Estimation of environmental parameters using HPLC, Estimation of environmental parameters using GC/GC-MS, Estimation of environmental parameters by CHNS analyser, etc.
Climate Change: Impact and Management
Content: Weather and climate, Greenhouse effect, Radiative balance, Climatic migration, Impact on women; Carbon Sequestration and trading, Projected trends of climate change and disasters. Climate change, Its impacts, Aquatic ecosystem, Capture and culture fisheries, Carbon footprint in fisheries and aquaculture. Ocean acidification, Global ocean circulation, El Nino and Southern Oscillation, IPCC and its reports, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, Politics of climate change. Climate change adaptation and mitigation, Vulnerability assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation measures, Climate-resilient aquaculture, Climate smart villages- NICRA.
Aquatic Pollution and Management
Content: Aquatic pollution: Sources, types and impacts, Pollution problems of groundwater resources (arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, pesticides), Sources of contamination and management issues. Pollutants: Sewage, pesticides, hydrocarbons, nutrients, Metals, Radioactive wastes, Biomedical wastes, hazardous chemicals, Microplastics, Nanoparticles; Dispersal and fate of pollutants. Air and soil pollution: Smoke, Smog, Photochemical smog and SPM, Impact of air and soil pollution on the aquatic environment. Methods of waste disposal, water quality criteria: National and International standards; ISO-14000(EMS), EIA, Management strategies, Emerging issues in aquatic environment. Waste waters: Their nutrient potentials, Scope and limitations, Treatment methods; Recovery of nutrients from liquid and solid wastes, Ecological sanitation, closing the loop. Integrated water management: Water conservation measures, Water use and reuse in aquaculture, Water use efficiency, Restoration ecology and rehabilitation
Practical: Determination of total dissolved and suspended solids, Determination of BOD, Determination of COD, Determination of NH3–N, Determination of Nitrate/Nitrite- N, Determination of Phosphate-P, Determination of metals and pesticides, Visit to a sewage treatment plant/fish processing unit/industries.
Content: Toxicity: Factors influencing toxicity, Environmental, genetic and nutritional, Ecological effects of toxicants, Genotoxicity, Neurotoxicity, Toxicology of emerging contaminants, PBDE, New generation pesticides and antibiotics, Antibiotic resistance. Toxicity evaluation: Toxicity Testing, Microcosm and mesocosm Tests, Dose- Response Relationships, Bioassay, Physiological and molecular evaluation. Metabolism: Metabolism of toxic substances by aquatic microbes and other organisms consequences, synergistic and antagonistic effects, Acute poisons and accumulative poisons, Biomonitoring and biosensors. Bioaccumulation, Bioconcentration and Biomagnification, Systemic effects of toxic metals, Pesticides and Herbicides; Effect of select toxicants on aquatic life and detoxification mechanisms, Interrelationship of xenobiotics with other environmental variables, biofilter organisms.
Practical: Toxicity evaluation of heavy metals on selected organisms by bioassay techniques, Toxicity testing methods, Toxicity assessment of pesticides and other contaminants on selected organisms.
Coastal Ecology and Management
Content: Coastal resources: Characteristics of coastal ecosystems (flora and fauna, trophic relationship, nutrient production, cycle and transport). Mangrove ecosystem: Species diversity, distribution and importance; Other intertidal systems - Seagrass, Sandy beach, Lagoon and estuary. Developmental activities and biodiversity loss: Human settlements, Industries, Shore protection works, Ports, transport systems and Waste disposal. Ecological issues, Impacts of environment changes, Threats to biodiversity, Habitat destruction; Depletion of fisheries resources. Coastal Zone Management: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) – its benefits, Principles, Goals and objectives, scope, zonation. National and international policies and planning for coastal resource management: Natural hazards and disasters -protection and management; Socioeconomic impacts and its assessment.
Practical: Analysis of soil and water characteristics of coastal areas and determination of different factors. Collection, preservation and identification of coastal biological communities Survey of different coastal zones.
Content: Distribution and classification: Microbial community in freshwater; Estuarine and marine environment (types and abundance); Factors affecting microbial growth and abundance; Extremophiles and their significance. Microbial interaction: interrelationships, Microbial degradation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs); Microorganisms and public health: Water-borne pathogens of public health importance - Protozoans, bacteria, enteroviruses; Microbial toxins; Algal toxins; Disinfection methods; Microbial standards for different water uses. Principles and applications of bioprocesses: Bioremediation, Biofertilization, Biofilms, Biofloc, Probiotics, Bio-leaching, Bio-corrosion, Bio-fouling; Microorganisms as Bioindicators and Biosensors. Methods of assessing microbial biomass production; Bioprospecting: Current practices in bioprospecting and biopiracy; Microbial metabolites and its industrial application.
Practical: Isolation, identification and enumeration of algae and bacteria from polluted aquatic habitats; Maintenance of algal and bacterial cultures; Microbial sensitivity testing; Bio-activity testing; Disinfection methods.
Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity
Content: Basic ecological concepts - Habitat ecology, systems ecology, Synecology, Autecology; Characteristic features of different biomes; Concept of community, Continuum, Community attributes, Community development, Ecological succession, Changes in ecosystem production, Concept of climax. Biodiversity – Definition and concept; Categories of biodiversity - Species diversity, Genetic Diversity; Habitat Diversity; Ecosystem services and Economic appraisal of biodiversity Biodiversity indices and their significance; Concepts of Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). Biodiversity Conservation - Global diversity patterns and loss of biodiversity; Conservation measures; Biodiversity hotspots, Biosphere reserves; National parks, sanctuaries; Marine protected areas; Convention on Biological Diversity; IUCN; CITES; WWF; Ramsar Convention; Man and Biosphere Programme; Indian legislations to biodiversity conservation, Ecological Sensitive Areas (ESAs).
Practical: Collection and identification of flora and fauna from different ecosystems. Calculation of biodiversity indices – Shannon-Wiener index; Simpson index, Hill index etc. Visit to biodiversity hotspots and ESAs.
Plankton Ecology and Trophic Dynamics
Content: Plankton diversity and productivity: Definition, Classifications and functions in aquatic ecosystem; Primary and secondary production - Production - Biomass (P/ B ratio), factors affecting production. Sampling and preservation techniques- Plankton nets and recorders, Cryopreservation methods and their significance, Indices of diversity. Ecology of phytoplankton: Freshwater and marine, Spatial and temporal variations, succession; Contribution of nanoplankton to primary production; Algal blooms and algal toxins; Nutrient manipulation for algal growth and control; Biological control of algal blooms; Mass culture of phytoplankton as a live-feed; Role of microalgae in carbon sequestration. Ecology of zooplankton: Freshwater and marine –Feeding behavior, Reproduction of important zooplankters; Swarms; Indicator species; Predator-prey relationship; Impact of grazing on the aquatic ecosystem; Vertical migration of zooplankton in relation to fish catch; Importance of zooplankton in the larval rearing of fish; Environmental manipulation for live-feed production; Mass culture of zooplankton as a live-feed.
Practical: Collection, preservation and estimation of phytoplankton and zooplankton; Periphyton estimation. Identification and classification of various phytoplankton and zooplankton. Mass culture of Phytoplankton and zooplankton. Preparation of permanent slide and sectioning.
Content: Fundamentals of environmental biotechnology: Environmental biotechnology- Concepts and Scope; Conventional and Modern approaches; IPR issues related to environmental biotechnology. Environmental monitoring: Cellular and molecular markers of environmental pollution monitoring; Bioindicators; Biosensors and nano-sensors. Remediation: Bioremediation; Genetically-improved/engineered organisms – Basic concepts; Applications in remediation of metals, Pesticides and hydrocarbons. Consortia of microbes for environmental protection – Concept, Scope and Feasibility, Recombinant DNA technology, Culture intendent nucleic acid-based techniques.
Practical: Genomic, Metagenomic and plasmid DNA isolation. Case studies on wastewater treatment using biotechnological tools. PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene as a tool for biomonitoring. PCR application of functional gene implicated in bioremediation. Screening of microbes for biodegradation properties.
Content: Oceanographic factors in fisheries: Effects of physio-chemical and biological oceanographic factors on adaptation, Behaviour, Abundance and distribution of aquatic organisms; Primary and secondary productivity in ocean, Productivity changes in the ocean. Synoptic oceanographic analysis: El Nino and Southern Oscillation; Stratification; Mud banks, Upwelling and circulation patterns. Forecasting systems: Fisheries forecasts – Interpretation and use of ocean thermal structure; Fisheries forecasting system in India and other countries – Remote sensing; GIS, Application in fisheries; Application of echo-sounders and SONAR; Potential fishing zones. Factors affecting marine fisheries: Environmental factors influencing the seasonal variations in fish catch in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
Practical: Use of tide tables. Oceanographic data analysis – water temperature, salinity, pH, nutrients, benthos and sediment characteristics. Fisheries forecasting systems. Oceanographic equipment and fish finding devices.
Utilization and Management of Aquatic Algal Resources
Content: Role of algae in fisheries and aquaculture, Batch and mass cultivation, Selection of culture medium, Isolation and maintenance of algal cultures; Water quality for algal culture, Algal culture as a livelihood option. Bio-prospecting of algal resources for value-added compounds/products-pigments, Agar agar, Carrageenan, Single cell protein, Nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Production of nanoparticles; Biofuels, Food and Feed, Algal compounds in cosmetics and Natural colourants, Polar algal resources and their applications. Value addition through food chain; Enhancement of productivity of phytoplankton - Use of thermal energy, Artificial upwelling, Wastewater utilization for algal cultivation. Role of algae in global warming mitigation; Nutrient supplementation of sea for productivity enhancement, Exotic algal species source and Preventive measures. International regulations for discharge of ballast water, Algal blooms and control measures.
Practical: Techniques for algal cultivation; Maintenance of pure cultures; Spirulina and Chlorella cultivation – indoor and outdoor; Extraction of pigments from algae (Carotenoids and Phycocyanin).
Content: Ecological restoration; Ecological processes and structures, Regional and Historical contexts, and sustainable culture practices; Ecosystem integrity; Community ecological principles; Disturbance, Succession, Fragmentation; Ecosystem function and Services. Emerging concepts-Assembly, Stable states; Environmental flows and cultural interactions; Application of theory-Invasion, Competitive dominance and resource use. Restoration planning; Wetland Assessment, Delineation, and Regulation; Recovery process, Mitigation, Rehabilitation, and Reclamation; Ecological Engineering – Ecosystem approach for restoration; Dynamics and restoration of degraded wetlands; Removal of threats to the health and integrity of the restored ecosystem, Use of constructed wetlands to eco-restoration. Ecosystem modeling; Ecosystem auditing; Socioeconomics of recovery process; Ecosystem Health Cards
Practical: Collection and segregation of native and non-native species from a degraded Environment; Making list of historical and cultural interactions, status of assemblages Calculation of Index of Biotic Integrity; Listing of the threats to the integrity of the ecosystem; Organizing different participatory programs; Designing a sustainable ecosystem.
Fish Genetics and Breeding (FGB) (M.F.Sc.)
Principles of Genetics and Breeding
Content: Historical development of genetics and breeding; Aim and scope of genetics and breeding; Domestication; Society and Genetics-Ethical issues; Basic statistical parameters-Probability concepts; Mean, Variance, Coefficient of variation, Correlation, Regression and Analysis of Variance. Cell structure, cell division and physical basis of heredity; Mendel’s Principles: Scope, Limitation; Modifications to Mendel’s ratios: Multiple alleles, Epistasis; Chromosomal theory of inheritance; Genetic variation: Causes and measurement; Linkage and crossing over, Recombination, Interference, Linkage disequilibrium. Modern concept of gene; DNA as genetic material, Replication of DNA; Genetic code and protein synthesis, Transfer and regulation of genetic information; Introduction to bioinformatics in fish genetics and breeding; Fish Genome: Zebrafish genome, Fish as genetic model. Cytogenetics; Cytogenetics and evolution; Karyotyping and chromosome banding; Genetic basis of sex determination; Sex-linked, Sex-limited, and Sex-influenced traits, Y-linked inheritance; Chromosome manipulation: Ploidy induction, Sex reversal, Gynogenesis and Androgenesis; Chromosomal aberrations; Mutations- Natural and Induced, Mutagens. Basic concepts of Population Genetics: Individual vs population; Gene and Genotype frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Principles and factors affecting them; Mutation; Fate of mutant allele in the population; Genetic drift; Concept of inbreeding and its management; Application of population genetics in fish resource conservation, preservation of gametes. Basic Concepts of Quantitative Genetics; Polygenic inheritance; Basis of genetic selection; Qualitative vs Quantitative traits; Pleiotropy; Penetrance; Natural Vs Artificial Selection, Aim of genetic selection and breeding, Present status of selective breeding in aquaculture; Economic traits of fish. Pedigree and its importance in fish breeding; Methods and aid to genetic selection. Application of selection for performance improvement Cross breeding and Hybridization.
Practical: Probability in genetics; Exercises on Mendel’s principles, Multiple alleles, Epistasis, Linkage and crossing over; Exercises on Hardy-Weinberg principles Estimation of gene and genotype frequencies; Karyotyping; Nucleic Acid isolation; Quantification of Inbreeding; Estimation of kinship coefficient; Record keeping in fish breeding; Estimation of genetic parameters.
Population and Quantitative Genetics
Content: Historical developments; Review of basic concepts of genetics and statistics; Scope and applications Biometrical techniques: Introduction to matrix algebra, Determinants, ANOVA, Regression and Correlations Basic concepts of General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). Definition of population, Individual vs. population, quantitative vs. qualitative characters Genetic structure of random mating populations. Polygenic inheritance: Limitation of single gene model; Polygenes and major genes; Polygenic model importance and limitations; Polygenic segregation and linkage. Hardy -Weinberg principles; Test, application and properties of equilibrium populations –Systematic and dispersive forces changing gene and genotype frequencies, Concept of Mutation, Balance between mutation and selection Genetic bottleneck; Genetic drift, Drift equilibrium, Effect on population structure –Intensity of selection, Fisher’s theorem of natural selection; Wahlund effect. Coefficient of genetic differentiation – FST, RST, QST, GST - their relative merits and demerits, Genetic similarity, distance and population divergence, Null alleles – Path coefficient; theory, analysis and applications –Basis of relationships; Independent and correlated causes –Idealized population and its properties, Effective population size. Concept of inbreeding- Calculating coefficient of kinship, Relationship, Inbreeding and Population size; Types and Methods of estimation and consequences-Change of mean and variance –Mechanisms of evolution and speciation; Delineation of species and/or stocks. Quantitative variation: Gene effects; Mode of inheritance and continuous variation; Population mean; Components of phenotypic value, Genotypic value, Average effect of gene and Gene substitution Estimation, tools for population genetic parameters – Variance component estimation with complex pedigree –Genetic parameters; heritability- Concept of heritability, Effective heritability, Different methods of estimation, Variance of heritability, Properties and applications of heritability; Repeatability, Maternal effects; Correlation between traits- Composition of genetic and Phenotypic covariance genetic, Phenotypic and Environment correlations and their standard errors, Concept of co-heritability. Breeding value: Biometrical relationship among relatives; Estimating fixed factors and Predicting random effects-BLUE and BLUP; Models for EBV –Selection: Aids and methods; genetic gain and correlated response; Recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection Heterosis; Theories and estimation, Combining ability-GCA, SCA; Utilization of non-additive genetic variance –Genomics and Phenomics.
Practical: Exercise on various statistical procedures and matrix algebra- Components of Variance, Covariance, Correlation and Regression, ANOVA in genetic parameter estimation. Estimation of gene and genotype frequencies and factors affecting them, Equilibrium in sex linked genes. Genetic stock structure analysis with dominant and co-dominant markers- Type I and Type II markers; Pedigree construction through Molecular marker information Path coefficient Estimation of effective population size, Rate of inbreeding, in breeding co-efficient, Estimation of Heritability and Repeatability and their accuracies; Building of pedigree files and construction of relationship matrix and its inverse; Estimation of breeding values-EBV, BLUE and BLUP. Genetic gain.
Principles of Selection and Selection Methods
Content: Genetic Selection and Breeding: Scope, Application, Role of genetics in fish selection and breeding National and International scenario of selective breeding programmes in aquaculture. Selection: Basis of selectionIntroduction to variance components –Estimation of selection differential, intensity of selection, response to selection –Identification of animals with high genetic merit –Estimation of breeding values- variance and accuracy of predicted breeding value; Various sources of information- Individual, information from relatives; Least squares and BLUP methods; Accuracy of selection. Combined selection: Combined selection –Selection index-selection Objective and criterion, selection criterion coefficients –Methods of selection –Realized heritability, Repeatability, Genetic, Phenotypic and Environmental correlations. Factors affecting rate of genetic improvement –Short term response to selection- Variance in response-Bidirectional selection, Selection limits Renewed selection gain –Threshold characters- Heritability of threshold traits, genetic correlation among threshold traits, selection for threshold traits –Scale effects. Formulation of breeding plans: Stock improvement plans for different population sizes and environments, Control population and experimental design –Development of new strains/synthetic population; Crossbreeding and hybridization. Domestication and inadvertent selection –Selection and mating designs for select traits: Mating systems and genetic consequences; Small stock and inbreeding effects, Inbreeding Depression; causes and methods to overcome; Out breeding; Crossbreeding, Utilization of heterotic effects, Selection and mating designs for growth, Disease resistance, color enhancement, Genotype×Environment interaction and its role in fish/shellfish breeding. Major genes and QTLs- Major and minor genes, Tests for detecting major genes, Application of markers in selection programmes, Status and their relevance; QTL and its application in selection, Marker Assisted Selection in Fisheries; Genomic
Practical: Estimation of genetic parameters: heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation; Estimation of phenotypic and environmental correlations Estimation of Breeding Values from various sources of information and their accuracies. Construction of selection indices. Designing and conducting challenge test for disease resistance. Selection: basis of selection, genetic gain. Response to selection and factors affecting response. Aids to selection; Methods of selection. QTL and MAS.
Fish Breeding Plans
Content: Historical development of fish breeding and domestication, Current status of aquaculture in world and India Maintaining pedigree, Physical and molecular tagging and maintaining breeding records. Economic traits in cultured species-Performance- Growth, Disease resistance, productive and reproductive traits, Recapture frequency, Behavior, Quality traits and their inheritance, Recording economic traits, Study of growth curves and their components, Influence of non-genetic factors on economic traits. Formation of base population, Designing mating plans, Effect of breeding programme on genetic diversity of farmed animals, Present status of breeding, Cross breeding in aquaculture; Broodstock management –Inbreeding depression and heterosisin various economic characters –Role of Breeders’ associations in national breeding programmes Fish breeding guidelines, Policies, Programs and economic analyses of breeding programmes, Their present status in India and World, Prospectus and challenges. Reproductive cycle, Factors affecting sexual maturation, Adapatability and reproduction, Age at maturity, Gonadal development stages in fin/shellfish and levels of hormonal intervention; Sex determination, Cryopreservation of gametes, Live feed development for larvae, Larval feeding and maintenance, Packaging and transport of fish; Nursery systems and their operation; Biosecurity. Application of recent technologies in stock improvement –Biosafety issues involved with genetically modified organisms, Release and registration of new varieties, Quality seed; Classes, production practices and maintenance of pure seed, Seed purity standards; Seed quality and fish seed certification. Shellfish breeding: Reproductive cycle of the shellfish; controlled mating of the shellfish; Economic traits and their recording. Ornamental fish breeding: Introduction to ornamentation and their inheritance Selection and mating systems, Inbred strains, transgenic strains, Production of gene knock-out fish, Genetic control and monitoring, Record keeping and ethics.
Practical: Tagging methods; Construction of growth curves Record keeping of stock; Standardization of the performance records for genetic parameters estimations; Breeding plan and design of breeding programme from successful case studies; Morphometric analysis- Truss analysis; Practical on synchronization of spawning, Closed lifecycle and controlled mating- Hormone induced ovulation; Collection of fish gametes, Assessing gamete quality; Cryopreservation.
Conservation of Fish Genetic Resources
Content: Fish genetic resources; Sample survey and distribution, Threatened aquatic species of India and world, Assessing threats to species and populations, Conflicts between nature conservation and other goals of the society. Evolutionary Genetics- Genetic diversity, Importance, Influencing factors, Characterizing Genetic diversity, Evolution in large and small population, Maintenance of genetic diversity, Conservation and preservation of aquatic species; Effect of population size, Loss of genetic diversity in small population, Inbreeding, Population fragmentation, Issues and strategies, Risk status/population viability analysis and classification, Breeding strategies of threatened species for restocking and live gene bank. Importance of mutation, Migration and their interaction with selection in conservation Application of molecular genetic tools for management of small population for conservation. Gene bank: Concepts, Objectives, Resources, Uses Institutes and Societies associated with conservation, Impact of inbreeding on genetic diversity and conservation; Evolutionary potential and heritability; Genetics and management of wild and captive populations, Introduction, domestication and acclimatization, Genetic management for reintroduction; In situ and ex-situ conservation; Gene pool concept - Primary, Secondary and Tertiary gene pool, and Gene introgression, Cryopreservation of sperm, Eggs and embryos. Effective population size and population structure; Factors threatening indigenous species; IPR issues of genetic resources; Regulations regarding introduction of exotic germplasm; Export import rules and regulations on conservation of aquatic genetic resources; Fish quarantine – status, procedures, scope and significance – Convention on Biodiversity and National Biodiversity Authority of India. Taxonomy and related issues, DNA barcoding, Characterization and identification of stock; Identification of farm escapees, Interaction between farmed and wild population Application of nanobiosensor for tracking of fish –Genomics in Conservation: Effect of climatic change on biodiversity.
Practical: Tagging methods for population; Estimation of gene and genotypic frequencies; Estimation of genetic diversity and relatedness using morphometric and molecular information; Application of molecular genetic markers for estimation of effective population size, rate of inbreeding and genetic bottleneck Analysis of genetic variance in population; Morphometric analysis of stocks Visit to Gene Bank/National/Regional Research Centres; Studies on Domestic and international quarantine process; its weaknesses and measures for its strengthening; Case studies on rescue and release of animals.
Bioinformatics and Computer Applications in Fish Genetics
Content: File Transfer Protocols; Work stations Application of spreadsheets in maintaining fish breeding records and breeding data management –Fish breeding data bases – Data input, Import, export, Modification; Data cleaning, manipulation and transformations; Data normalization, Graphical analysis and representation of breeding data. Introduction to basic matrix algebra, Definition, Addition, Multiplication, Determinants, Inverse of matrix. Usage of various computer packages for genetic analyses: SAS, R, AsReml and others, Analysis of variance, Variance component estimations, Estimation of genetic parameters; Inbreeding estimation. Software for molecular genetics data analysis (SAS Genetics, SAS Genomics, R), Estimation of population parameters, Estimation of ‘F’ Statistics. Introduction to Bioinformatics and various operating systems employed, Exposure to various open source online bioinformatics tools and applications, Use of Perl and R-Bio conductor packages, Introduction to Bioinformatics databases, Information retrieval from various sequence and structure databases and mock sequence submission, Database searching, Sequence formats and alignments; BLAST, Conversion and handling of various sequence formats, Usage of online sequence alignment tools. Sequence analysis; Annotation, Sequence conversion and translation, Sequence comparison, Phylogenetic analysis, Protein structure analysis and its analysis; analysis of amino acids sequence, NGS data formats and data cleaning, Use of bioinformatics tools for identifying QTL and selection of elite germplasm.
Molecular And Cytogenetics
Content: Introduction, Historical background, Importance, Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomal models and their ultra-structure, Chromosomal movements and position effect –Cytogenetic and evolution. DNA and RNA as genetic material; Chemistry and structure of DNA, Fine structure of gene, Split genes, Pseudogenes, Overlapping genes and Multigene families, Mechanisms of DNA replication, Extra Chromosomal Inheritance / Cytoplasmic Inheritance; Mitochondrial DNA. Biochemical markers: Allozyme polymorphism and its application in estimating population genetic parameters, Genetic basis of immunity. Molecular markers; RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, EST, SNP, Mini satellites and Microsatellites and application in population genetic analysis and gene mapping, FISH–principle and application, Maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers, Molecular pedigree, Major genes, Poly genes and QTLS, Application of molecular markers in genetic selection, QTL and MAS, Association studies, Genomic selection. Genetics of Sex determination and differentiation; Genotypic sex determination (GSD); Environmental Sex determination (ESD); Sex manipulation, Production of monosex population, Sex chromatin and Lyon’s hypothesis; Chromosome numbers in fish and karyotyping, Chromosome banding techniques Molecular Cytogenetics; Fluroscence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) –Application of nanotechnology in chromosome and genome mapping, Mitochondria and Y chromosome. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity –Chromosomal aberrations; Single cell gel electrophoresis, MNT, SCE; Genetic and evolutionary implications.
Practical: Biochemical markers and Molecular markers; DNA sequence polymorphism and related software for alignment and analysis; Genomic DNA isolation from prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Interpretation of gels and data analysis using various software; Isolation of RNA and RT-PCR, Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNAPCR, primer designing, PCR-RFLP, extraction of DNA from agarose gels; Preparation of chromosome spreads; Karyotyping; Banding techniques; MNT, SCE, Comet Assay.
Cell and Tissue Culture
Content: Introduction: Structure and Organization of animal cell; Equipment and materials for animal cell culture technology, Cell lines and media; Primary and established cell line cultures; Media supplements, their metabolic functions; serum and protein free defined media and their application. Cell culture: Basic techniques of cell culture in vitro; Development of primary cultures, Cell separation, Maintenance of cell lines; Biology of cultured cells, Transformation and differentiation of cell cultures, Characterization of cell lines; Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity assays; Measuring parameters of growth; Karyotyping, Isozyme assays, Cryopreservation, Assessment of contaminants. Cell cloning: Micromanipulation, cell transformation, application of fish cell culture, 3D cell culture, Scaling-up of cell culture, Cell hybridization; Somatic cell fusion, hybridoma technology, Production and Application of monoclonal antibodies. Stem cell culture and its application, Bio-products from cell culture, Cryopreservation of embryos and cells.
Practical: Principles of sterile techniques and cell propagation; Preparation of different cell culture media; Primary cell culture techniques; Establishing cell lines: isolation, characterization identification of cell lines; Pure culture techniques; Maintenance and preservation of cell lines; Propagation of cells in suspension cultures; Hybridoma technology: strategy and techniques; Production of monoclonal antibodies; Cryopreservation of cell lines.
Content: Introduction to Molecular Breeding; Molecular mechanism of genetic recombination, Molecular taxonomy and its application in Fisheries; Phylogenetics and its application –Genetics of Sex determination; Genotypic sex determination (GSD); Environmental Sex determination (ESD); Sex manipulation, production of monosex population. Single genes in fish breeding; Mapping and Identifying single genes; Types of DNA sequence responsible for alterations to create single gene effect –QTL and MAS identification; Marker assisted selection with markers in linkage disequilibrium with QTL –Molecular pedigree Assigning. Major genes, Poly genes and QTLS, Tests for detecting major genes, Complex segregation analysis, Genetic maps and candidate genes, Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in pedigreed population, Methods and tools for GWAS. Introduction to genomic selection; Methodologies for genomic selection; Estimation of Genomic breeding value, Factors affecting the accuracy of genomic selection, Genomic selection with low marker density; Genomic selection across populations and strains, Re-estimation of the chromosome segments, Designing breeding programs with genomic information.
Practical: LD Analysis; Molecular pedigree construction; Power of association studies; Building the IDB matrix from linkage disequilibrium information; marker assisted selection with linkage disequilibrium; Genomic Relationships and GBLUP; Realized Genomic Relationships; Calculation of G Matrices; Genomic BLUP; Genomic selection using BLUP; Genomic selection using a Bayesian approach; Bayesian Approach using a prior for chromosome segment variances with a large weight at zero (Bayesian).
Content: Basic of microbial existence: Why study the prokaryotic genetics History of Microbiology –Bacterial genetics, Conjugation, Sex factors; High frequency recombination; Transduction (generalized and specialized), Bacterial transformation; Mutation types, Repair mechanism, Selection of mutants, Genetics of Bacteriophage- Bacteriophage classification, Types, PhageT4-Structure, Gene expression and genome organization, Lamda phage replication, Lytic and lysogeneic cycles, Mechanisms of repressor synthesis and its control, Auto regulation, One step growth curve; Importance of bacteriophages, Coalescent of bacterial population, Population reproduction models, Time and effective population size, Demography – Recombination and gene conversion. Linkage, Selection and the clonal complex- Recombination, Linkage and substructure, Neutrality versus Selection, Clustering Techniques; Sequence based population structure analysis. Population Genetics-Natural Selection, Methods for detecting presence of natural selection, Measure of genetic diversity, The concept of Effective population size, Population sub division, Population Genomics, Population structure and genetic evolution, Similarities and differences, Bacterial Population genomics, MLVA and SNP for analysis in population genetic study, Phylogenetic resolution, Phylogeographic resolution. Gene Maps, Tools and protocols World Wide Web Databases, Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Technological advances Controls and cautions. Transposable Elements: IS elements, Tn3 family and medical significance, The Genetic and evolutionary significance of transposable elements; Use in genetic analysis and evolutionary issues. Microbial strain improvement techniques; Identification of ideal microorganisms for bioprocess, Microbial strain improvement, Genetic engineering and evolutionary engineering, Bioprocess optimization and applications in industry, Agriculture and health.
Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology (FNT) (M.F.Sc.)
Principles of Fish Nutrition
Content: Protein nutrition: Protein and amino acids, Their specific functions, Classification and evaluation criteria of dietary protein (nutrient gain, nutrient efficiency, TGC, PER, NPU, BV, EAAI, chemical score), Protein deficiency symptoms. Lipid nutrition: Lipids and fatty acids, Their specific functions, Classification and evaluation of lipid quality, Lipid deficiency symptoms. Carbohydrate nutrition: Carbohydrates, Functions, Classification and Utilization of carbohydrate in fish diets. Vitamin and mineral nutrition: Specific functions, Classification, Sources of vitamins and minerals and their deficiency symptoms. Nutritional energetics: Definition, Different forms of energy and energy value of feed (gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy), Importance of protein-energy ratio in fish diets. Larval and Brood stock nutrition: Larval gut morphology, importance of live feed and formulated feeds in larval nutrition, Nutrients required for egg and sperm quality and reproductive efficiency.
Practical: Proximate analysis: Moisture, Crude protein, Crude lipid, Gross energy, ash, acid insoluble ash, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract of feed and fish tissue, analysis of fatty acids and amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C content of feed.
Nutrient Digestion and Growth
Content: Digestive system of fish: Digestive organs and their roles, Anatomy and histology, Feed ingestion, Feeding mechanism, Gastro-intestinal motility. Digestive system of shellfish: Digestive organs and their roles, Anatomy and histology, Feed ingestion, Feeding mechanism, Gastro-intestinal motility. Digestion: Digestion of proteins, Lipids and carbohydrates, Methods of determining digestibility; Direct and indirect methods, Advantages and disadvantages of methods, Digestibility value of feed ingredients and Factors affecting digestibility, Role of gut micro flora in digestion. Absorption and Transportation: Active, passive and facilitated absorption of nutrients, Transport of nutrients and cellular uptake. Regulation of digestion: Appetite and satiation, Factors influencing appetite and satiation, Hormonal regulation and Factors affecting digestion. Growth: Concept of growth, Growth curve, Biotic and abiotic factors affecting growth, Correlation of growth with body weight and length.
Practical: Dissection and examination of digestive organs; Histological preparation of digestive organs; Assays of enzyme activity of amylase, proteases and lipases; In vivo – in vitro digestibility studies.
Feeds and Feed Technology
Content: Feed formulation: General principles and criterions, Different methods of feed formulation; Pearson’s square method and least cost formulation (quadratic equation, solver function, Graphic solution, Linear programming and software assisted formulations), Limitations of formulation methods. Types of feed: Wet, Moist and Dry (pellets – steam compressed, extruded and crumbled, flakes, powdered/ mash, micro-encapsulated, micro-bound and microcoated diets). Farm made feeds, Experimental diets; Reference diet, purified and semi-purified diet, Compact pellet, Floating and slow sinking pellet feeds; Starter, grower, Finisher and broodstock feeds, High energy eco-friendly and medicated feed. Feed processing technology: Receiving of raw materials, Equipments used in feed manufacture and processing; Grinder/pulverizer, Mixer, Pelletizer/extruder, Crumbler, Drier, Vacuum coater/ fat sprayer, automatic bagging and sealing, Role of pre-conditioning in feed preparation, Effects of processing on the nutritional value and availability of nutrients. Feed storage: Hydro-stability of feed and their storage; Prevention of spoilage from rancidity, Fungus and associated toxins; Vectors of fish disease in feed and quality control; Nutritional value in relation to feed storage. Feed additives and supplements: Binders, carotenoids, Attractants, Antioxidants, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, Immunostimulants, Nutraceuticals, Acidifiers and Preservatives, Bile acids, Herbal additives and Vitamins, minerals, Limiting amino acids, Essential fatty acids, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol. Quality control in fish feed manufacturing: Quality control procedures, Raw materials, Finished products; Safety of farm fish products, Harmful residues (pesticides, antibiotics, and pollutants).; Geometrical, and physical feature; Mechanical characteristics in air, Behavioural characteristics in water, Feed economics and evaluation.
Practical: Feed formulation, Preparation of mineral and vitamin premix, Feed additives, binders, water stability test, and available lysine, Determination of feed particle size, Development of feed dispensers both for laboratory and pond feeding as part of project assignment, Visit to feed processing industries.
Content: Concepts of nutritional energetics: Energy budget equation; Energetic efficiencies and energy flow/partitioning in biological systems; Gross energy, Digestible energy, Metabolizable energy, Net energy, Heat increment of feeding (specific dynamic action, SDA); Factors influencing energy metabolism. Energy requirement: Energy requirement of fish and shellfish, Factors influencing energy requirements; Energetics of maintenance and methodology of estimating the maintenance requirement. Energy estimation: Direct and indirect methods of estimation of energy of feed and feed components based on chemical compositions. Energetics of growth: Relationship between feeding and growth; Energy exchange in biological systems; Growth and maturation. Energetics of reproduction: Gonadal maturation and reproduction in relation to feeding. Energetics of intermediary metabolic pathways: Aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, TCA cycle, Glycogenolysis, Beta oxidation, Electron transport chain, Effect of biotic and Abiotic factors on energy metabolism.
Practical: Estimation of gross and digestive energy of feed and feed ingredients; Estimation of digestibility of nutrients, Bomb- calorimetry; Energy budget equation based on experimental data; Determination of standard metabolism in fish; Assay of metabolic enzymes.
Nutritional Requirement and Feeding Management
Content: Nutritional requirements of finfish and shell fish: Nutritional requirements of larvae, growout and broodstock of commercially important finfish and shellfish. Methods of studying nutritional requirements; Qualitative and quantitative methods; Nutrients deficiency symptoms. Nutritive value of live food: Algae, Artemia, Cladocerans, Ostracods, Rotifers and copepods, Bio enrichment of artemia and zooplankton, Experimental diets; Reference diet, Purified and Semi-purified diet. Response indices for nutrient requirement studies: Weight gain, Specific growth rate (SGR)/ daily growth coefficient (DGC), Thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and, feed conversion ratio (FCR), Protein efficiency ratio (PER), Net protein utilization (NPU), Physiometabolic parameters, Dose response curves, Gonadosomatic index (GSI). Body composition of fish and shellfish: Influence of nutrients on body composition and flesh quality; Effect of rations on fecundity and egg quality. Feeding methods and devices: Broadcasting, Bag feeding, Tray feeding, Raft feeding, demand feeder, Mechanical automatic feeder, Blower feeder. Check tray feed monitoring, Ration size/ feeding rate and feeding frequency, Restricted feeding and mixed feeding. Feeding management: Application of research findings to farming situations, Record keeping, Growth prediction and Feeding management.
Practical: Determination of feed intake in fry and fingerlings; Determination of nutrient requirements of fish/prawn using purified diet; Analysis of experimental data from growth study; Measures of protein quality (PER, NPU, BV); Exercise on feeding.
Feed Ingredients and Additives
Content: National and international scenario: Present production trend and future requirements of feed ingredients, International coding of feed ingredients. Ingredient classification: Conventional and unconventional feed ingredients, Plant (protein and energy-carbohydrate and lipid) and Animal (protein and energylipid) sources. Quality evaluation of feed ingredients: Physical, Chemical (proximate composition, amino acids, EAAI, chemical score, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals profile and energy estimation, Anti- Nutritional Factors (ANFs) and other adventitious toxins) and Biological methods, Classification, Mode of action and Methods of detoxification of ANFs, Adulterants in feed ingredients. Feed additives and supplements: Classification, Function; Gustatory stimulants and feed attractants; Nutraceuticals, Non-nutrient feed components. Feed raw material storage and spoilage: Grain storage, Liquid storage, Meal storage and Vitamin storage methods and practices, Prevention and management of raw material spoilage, Factors responsible for spoilage, Design criteria of storage shed, Silos, Bins, Roof ventilation and Aeration management etc., Temperature Monitoring, Silo Aeration system management and fumigation system to prevent spoilage. Enhancing nutrient status of feed raw material: Application of genetic engineering and production of genetically modified plant ingredients. Amino acids deficient in plant ingredients. Manipulating biosynthesis pathways to enhance essential amino acids in plant ingredients.
Practical: Identification of feed ingredients; Amino acid analysis of feed ingredients; Estimation of gross energy; Estimation of ANFs (Tannin, gossypol, phytate, protease inhibitors, cyanogens) and aflatoxin.
Shellfish Nutrition and Feeding
Content: Nutritional requirements: Protein, Carbohydrate, Lipid, Vitamin, Mineral, Essential amino acid, Fatty acid at various life stages, Methods for determining nutrient requirements, Factors affecting nutritional requirements. Energy requirements: Protein-energy ratio, Protein sparing and Methods for determining energy requirement and Factors affecting energy requirements. Food and feeding: Food and feeding habits, Natural food organisms, Microparticulate diets (MBD, MCD, MED, MEM, PARA) for hatcheries; Grow-out and finisher feeds; Broodstock feeds for conditioning, Maturation and reproduction. Digestion, absorption and metabolism: Feed ingestion and feeding mechanism, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of nutrients, Gastro-intestinal motility, Factors affecting digestibility; Importance of microbial digestion. Feeding management: Ration size/feeding rate and feeding frequency; Feed dispensing methods and Devices. Feed Additives and health: Role of feed additives in shellfish nutrition, Immunity and health, Nutrient deficiency diseases in shellfish.
Practical: Study of digestive system of shrimps, prawns, lobsters, crabs; Formulation and preparation of diet with specific additives; nutrient requirement study in crustacean; water stability test.
Content: Protein requirement and their sources: Conventional and non-conventional, Plant and animal origin; Non-protein nitrogen; Protein requirement for maintenance, Growth and reproduction, Essential and non-essential amino acids, Amino acid antagonism, Protein and amino acid deficiency symptoms. Protein energy ratio: Factors affecting protein requirement, Importance of protein energy ratio (P/E Ratio). Digestion, absorption and metabolism: Digestion of protein, Absorption of amino acids and Their metabolism; Amino acid pool and Protein turnover. Evaluation of protein quality: PER, NPU, BV, ANPU, Kjeldahl Nitrogen Conversion factors. Ideal protein concept.
Practical: Extraction and purification of protein, Microkjeldahl method; Estimation of protein by methods of Biuret, Lowry and Bradford, total free amino acids; In vivo and In vitro protein digestibility.
Content: Requirement of lipid and their sources: Terrestrial and aquatic origin; Optimum dietary lipid level; Essential fatty acid requirements for growth, Reproduction and health importance of other fat soluble substances (vitamins, carotenoids etc.). Interspecies differences in lipid requirement. Lipid metabolism: Lipid digestion, Absorption, Transportation/mobilization, Metabolism and storage, Protein sparing effect of lipids. Lipids and their fatty acids: Role of lipids and essential fatty acids, Their qualitative and quantitative requirement. Lipids quality: Oxidation of fats/lipids, Antioxidants and evaluation of lipid quality, Deficiency symptoms.
Practical: Estimation of total lipids, phospholipids and free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification number, iodine value Separation and quantification of individual fatty acids by GCMS.
Content: Sources: Carbohydrate sources and digestible energy supply, Role of estible and non-digestible carbohydrates; Dietary levels of carbohydrate for carps and catfishes. Digestibility and interactions with other nutrients: Carbohydrate digestibility, Factors affecting starch utilization, Carbohydrate and Interaction with other nutrients and protein sparing effect. Constraints and utilization: Constraints of carbohydrate utilization in fish, Nonstarch polysaccharides, Strategy to enhance carbohydrate utilization; Gelatinization, Exogenous amylases, Glucose Intolerance; Carbohydrates and immunity. Economic importance aquafeeds: Maximum and inclusion levels for different fish species, Uses of carbohydrates for low cost feed formulations.
Practical: Estimation of starch gelatinization in different feed processing methods; Blood glucose estimation; Estimation of crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides.
Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition
Content: Vitamins: Classification and sources, properties and functions of water and fat soluble vitamins; Vitamin as co-enzymes and prosthetic groups of enzymes. Vitamin requirements and sources: Vitamin requirements of different species; dietary sources of vitamins; factors affecting vitamin requirements; Loss of vitamins during feed processing and storage. Vitamin deficiency: Manifestation of vitamin deficiency; Vitamin –mineral interactions. Hypo- and hyper-vitaminosis. Minerals: Classification and sources, macro, micro minerals and heavy metals toxicity. Minerals requirements for different aquaculture species, dietary sources of minerals, factors affecting mineral requirement; nutrient-minerals interaction; Mineral-Mineral interactions; manifestation of mineral deficiency.
Practical: Estimation of zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and vitamin A; preparation of vitamin and mineral premix; estimation of vitamin and mineral losses due to leaching.
Content: Nutraceuticals/functional foods: Definition, Classification and scope in aquaculture Benefits and modes of action of nutraceuticals: Immunomodulatory proteins, Peptides, Polysaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Herbal extracts/phytochemicals, Carotenoids, Nucleotides, Bioactive compounds from seaweeds etc. Minerals as nutraceuticals: Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Manganese, and Selinium. Role of nutraceuticals: Stress mitigation and Growth enhancement,
Immunomodulation and disease prevention.
Practical: Estimation of immunomodulatory parameters (lysozyme, NBT, MPO, antibody titre), estimation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx), extraction of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant assay.
Aquatic Animal Health Management (AAH) (M.F.Sc.)
Principles of Aquatic Animal Health Management
Content: Introduction to aquatic animal health management: Introduction to various aspects of health management; Stress response; Definition of health and disease; Pathogen carriers; Simple fish disease models. Legislative framework: Principles of quarantine; Zoning and compartmentalization; Live fish transportation; Import risk analysis; Health certification, Principle, Procedure, The regulatory body for aquaculture health certification. One health concept of OIE: World animal health organization and importance for trading; One health concept of OIE. Health management measures in an open system: Health management measures in cages, Pen, Reservoirs and open-water aquaculture; Interactions of farmed and Wild animals; Disease exchange with wild; Management measures for host, environment and pathogen: Management measures for pathogen; Therapeutics and sanitizers; Management measures for the environment; Bioremediators, Biocontrol agents, Shrimp toilet; Management measures for the host; Specific pathogen-free (SPF), Specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) and Specific pathogen-tolerant (SPT); Probiotics; Immunomodulators; Concepts of vaccination. Developing management practices and biosecurity principles: Health maintenance, Better management practices (BMP), Good aquaculture practices (GAP), Hazard analysis and Critical control point (HACCP) and Biosecurity principles in aquaculture.
Practical: Case study; Disease risk analysis; Demonstration of different management measures; Demonstration of different diagnostic tools; Application of therapeutics; Application of sanitizers, Disinfectants; Visit to SPF shrimp larval production centres, Biosecure shrimp grow-out farms; Documentation and comparison of different management practices at farm/hatchery level.
Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Introduction to microbial infection: Pathogenesis, Virulence Mechanisms, Epidemiology, Prophylaxis, Therapeutic measures. Bacterial diseases of finfish: Aetiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Prophylaxis, Treatment and control measures of bacterial diseases of finfish with emphasis on furunculosis, Aeromoniasis, columnaris disease, Bacterial kidney disease, Bacterial gill disease, Vibriosis, mycobacteriosis, Edwardsiellosis, Flavobacteriosis, Francisellosis, Enteric red mouth disease, Pasteurellosis, Piscirickettsiosis, Streptococcosis, Lactococcosis, pseudomonas septicaemia, Chryseobacteriosis, Clostridial disease, Aerococcus viridans infection. Bacterial diseases of shellfish: Aetiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Prophylaxis, Treatment and control measures of bacterial diseases of shellfish with emphasis on Vibriosis, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), Hepatobacter penaei infection or Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis (NHP), Rickettsial diseases, Mycobacteriosis. Fungal diseases of finfish: Aphanomycosis, Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish- Aetiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis diagnosis and management, Cotton wool disease, Branchiomycosis; Aspergillosis. Fungal diseases of shellfish Lagenidium spp., Sirolpidium spp., Haliphthoros spp., Fusarium spp., Aphanomy cesastaci infection. Antimicrobial resistance Use and abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture; Antibiotic resistance; Multidrug resistance; Molecular mechanisms.
Practical: Sampling techniques; Culture techniques; Case study; Examination of moribund fish for bacterial diseases; Isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens; Serological diagnostic techniques; Molecular diagnostic techniques; Antibiotic sensitivity assay; Identification of virulence factors; Isolation, culture and identification of fungal pathogens, Maintenance and preservation of microbial cultures.
Viral Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Viral classification, infection and isolation: General biology of viral infections; Virus classification (ICTV); Virus replication; Virulence markers; Viral evasion; Principles of cell culture; Development of primary cell culture; Maintenance of cell lines; Scaling up of cell culture; Characterization and preservation of cell lines. OIE listed viral pathogens of finfish: Pathogenesis, Molecular biology, Epidemiology and control of OIE listed viral pathogens/ diseases of finfish: Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis (EHN), Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), Spring viraemia of carp (SVC), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) and Red Seabream Iridoviral Disease (RSIVD), Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3 or KHV). Non-OIE listed viral pathogens of finfish: Pathogenesis, molecular biology, Epidemiology, and control of non-OIE listed viral pathogens/ diseases of finfish; Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV), Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER), Channel Catfish Virus (CCV), Lymphocystis, Tilapia Lake virus (TiLV), Carp Edema Virus (CEV), Piscine orthoreovirus, Cyprinid Herpes Virus-2 (CyHV-2). OIE listed viral pathogens of shrimp and prawn: Major viral pathogens of commercially important cultured crustaceans with special reference to shrimp and prawn; clinical signs, Pathogenesis, Molecular characterization, Diagnostic methods, Epidemiology and Control associated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV), Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV), Yellow Head Virus (YHV) genotype-1, Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). Non-OIE listed viral pathogens of shrimp: Major viral pathogens of commercially important cultured crustaceans with special reference to shrimp and prawn; clinical signs, pathogenesis, molecular characterization, diagnostic methods, epidemiology and control associated with monodon baculovirus (MBV), hepatopancreatic parvolike virus (HPV), baculovirus penaei (BP), baculovirus midgut gland necrosis virus (BMNV), Laem-Singh virus (LSNV), gill-associated virus (GAV), extra small virus (XSV), shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV), reovirus, covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV). Viral diseases of molluscans: Introduction to viral diseases of molluscans - Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OSHV-1), Abalone Herpes Virus (AbHV), Haemocytic Infection Virus disease (HIV), Oyster Velar Virus (OVV).
Practical: Sampling techniques; Case study of viral diseases; Examination of shrimp; freshwater prawn and molluscs for viral infection; Examination of moribund fish for viral diseases, Preservation and processing of samples; Virus isolation and replication, bioassay methods, Serological and molecular diagnostic techniques, Plaque and neutralization assay; Development of primary cell cultures for virus studies, Maintenance of cell lines, Viral bioinformatics.
Parasitic Diseases of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Host-parasite relationship: Introduction and concepts of different animal associations; Important ecological terms used in parasitology; General introduction to the classification of protozoan and metazoan parasites; Life cycle; Host-parasite relationship. Protozoan parasitic diseases of finfish: Diseases of importance in aquaculture, Clinical signs, Etiology, pathology, Epidemiology, Host-parasite relationship, diagnosis, treatments and control of the disease caused by protozoan parasites; Amoeba- Neoparamoeba perurans (Amoebic gill disease-AGD); Ciliates-
Ichthyophthirius, Cryptocaryon, Trichodina; Flagellates- Ichthyobodo (Costia) necatrix, Cryptobia, Amyloodinium, Trypanosoma, Trypanoplasma; Microsporidians- Glugea, Pleistophoraetc. Metazoan parasitic diseases of finfish: Diseases of importance in aquaculture, Clinical signs, etiology, Pathology, epidemiology, Host-parasite relationship, Diagnosis, Treatments and control of the disease caused by metazoan parasites, Myxozoans- Myxobolus cerebralis, Spaerospora arenicola; Kudoa thyrsites, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, etc., Monogeneans- Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus, Diplectanum, Benedenia; Digeneans- Diplostomum, Sanguinicola, Neascuscuticola, Schistosoma etc., Larval trematode infection (metacercaria); Cestodes: Diphyllobothrium latum, Caryophyllaeus, Ligula; Nematodes: Capillaria, Camallanus; Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchus Crustacean parasitic diseases of finfish: Diseases of importance in aquaculture, Clinical signs, Etiology, Pathology, Epidemiology, Host-parasite relationship, Diagnosis, treatments and control of the disease caused by Crustacean parasites; Branchiurans- Argulus; Copepods- Lernaea, Caligus, Lepeophtheirus, Ergasilus; Isopods- Cymothoa, Cirolina, Nerocila. Protozoan parasitic diseases of shellfish: Diseases of importance in aquaculture, Clinical signs, Etiology, Pathology, Epidemiology, Host-parasite relationship, Diagnosis, treatments and control of the disease caused by protozoan parasites; Ciliates-Zoothamnium, Vorticella, Epistylis; Cephaline gregarines; Microsporidian: Cotton shrimp disease-causing microsporidians, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP); Haplosporidian.Parasitic diseases of molluscans: Bonamia, Perkinsus, Marteilia. Antiparasitic drugs and parasitic zoonoses: Common anti-protozoal and antimetazoal drugs applied in aquaculture; Mode of application and their action; Definition and Classification of zoonoses and Approaches to their management; Parasitic zoonoses of fish/shellfish origin: Trematodes (Heterophyes, Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Paragonimus, Echinostomaetc); Cestodes (Diphyllobothrium, Spirometra, Ligula); Nematodes (Gnathostoma, Anisakis, Angiostrongylus, Capillariaetc.).
Practical: Case studies of different organs and tissues of finfish/shellfish infected with ectoand endoparasites; Collection, preservation and fixation of suitable samples for laboratory examination; Preparation microscopic examination of tissue impression, blood/haemolymph smears; Wet-mount preparation of gill, mucus, skin scrapings etc; Collection of faecal, intestinal content and recovery of parasites; Collection and identification of parasites; Study of morphological characters of adults and developmental stages of the protozoan and metazoan parasites of importance in aquaculture; Preparation of permanent slides, micrometry and photomicrography; Histopathological analysis of parasite-infected tissues; Examination of intermediate host for larval stages; Microscopic examination of already prepared parasitic specimens (collection of permanent slides); Identification of parasites and histological lesions.
Fish and Shellfish Pathology
Content: General pathology: Brief introduction to finfish and shellfish anatomy and histology; General pathology of finfish and shellfish. Pathophysiology of fish: Pathophysiology of finfish and shellfish; Stress and stressors; General adaptation syndrome; Types of cellular adaptations; Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Atrophy and metaplasia, Neoplasia. Inflammation and cellular pathology: Reversible cellular changes and accumulations; Fatty changes and pigments; Inflammation; Causes of inflammation; Cellular responses to inflammation; Mediators; various patterns of inflammation; The difference between acute and chronic inflammation; Tissue repair; Cell death; Necrosis, Apoptosis, Autophagy; Necroptosis; Their mechanisms and different morphological patterns. Clinical pathology: Normal constituents of blood; Alterations in the haematological parameters and enzymes with reference to different pathological conditions in finfish; Haematology of shrimp and molluscans; Clotting mechanisms; other host defence mechanisms. Systemic pathology of finfish: Systemic pathology of finfish integumentary system, Respiratory system, Vascular system, Digestive system, Excretory system, Nervous system, Musculoskeletal and Endocrine system due to bacteria, Parasites and viruses. Systemic pathology of shellfish: Major pathological changes due to infectious diseases in the integumentary system, Lymphoid organ, Gill, Hepatopancreas, Gut and other organs of crustaceans; Major pathological changes due to diseases in molluscans.
Practical: Necropsy techniques; Collection and fixation of tissues; Complete histology and different staining techniques; Examination and interpretation of the pathological changes in fish tissues; Complete blood profile of finfish; Routes of blood collection from fish; Different staining techniques for blood cell visualization; Morphology of blood cells; Total leucocyte count; Differential leucocyte count.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology
Content: Introduction to fish immunology: Phylogeny and ontogeny of the immune system; Lymphoid tissues and cellular components of the immune system; T and B cells; Mucosal immune system. Non-specific immune system of finfish: Phagocytosis; Mechanism of phagocytosis; Complement system: function, components; Complement activation. Specific immune system of finfish: Memory function and immunological tolerance; Antigens and antigenicity; Antigen processing; Superantigens; Haptens; Antibody: structure, types, Theories of antibody formation; Regulation of immune response. Antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity: Cell-mediated immune response and its components; Antibody-mediated immune responses; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody production and application; The basic concept of aptamers, Aptabodies and Edible antibodies. Defence mechanisms of shellfish: Invertebrate defence mechanisms; Quasi immune response. Immunoprophylaxis: Immunomodulation, probiotics; Aquaculture vaccines: History, concept, Development of vaccines; Advances in DNA vaccines, Recombinant vaccines, vectored vaccines, etc; Routes of administration; Adjuvants and ligands; Efficacy and Limitation of vaccines; Immune genes and their regulation.
Practical: Serum separation; Preparation of antigen; Raising of antibodies; Antigen-antibody reactions: Agglutination tests, Precipitation tests: gel diffusion; ELISA; Antibody titration; Western blotting; Isolation of lymphocytes; Non-specific immune response: NBT assay, lysozyme assay; Prophenoloxidase in shrimp; Preparation of a simple vaccine and administration.
Principles of Fish Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Content: Therapeutics in aquaculture: Common therapeutants used in aquaculture; Their mode of action, Dose and dosage, Methods of application; Phytotherapy, Phagetherapy, Nanoparticle-based drugs, Antimicrobial peptides, etc. Pharmacology principles: Pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics; Residual effect and withdrawal period of various chemotherapeutants. Application: Pharmacovigilance; Immunopharmacology; Pharmacogenetics; OECD guidelines. Impacts of aquadrugs: Drug toxicity and poisoning, Antimicrobial resistance; Antibiotic resistance and its impact on the environment and human health; Legislative framework of chemotherapy in aquaculture; Drug regulation acts and other legal aspects.
Practical: On-farm practical sampling sessions; Case studies; Dose determination; Application of therapeutants; Different methods of delivery of therapeutants in aquaculture; Demonstration of phytotherapy; Determination of MIC of drugs; Determination of MCC of drugs. Extraction of compounds from plants, Methods to identify the active compounds (HPLC).
Non-infectious Diseases and Disorders of Finfish and Shellfish
Content: Importance of water and sediment quality: Impact of water and sediment parameters on finfish and shellfish health. Nutritional imbalance: Studies on the causes, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various diseases due to nutritional imbalance and anorexia; Vitamin deficiencies and mineral deficiencies and their toxicity. Disorders: Metabolic disorders; Skeletal deformities; White faecal syndrome (WHS) in shrimp. Impact of toxicants on fish health: Algal blooms, Important mycotoxins, Icthyotoxins, Chemical toxins, and Other toxicants and their effects on fish health.
Practical: Case study; Study of gross changes in different tissues inflicted due to various nutritional deficiency; Study of histopathological changes in different tissues inflicted due to various nutritional deficiency; Study of histopathological changes in different tissues inflicted due to various toxicants.
Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance
Content: Introduction to epidemiology and concepts: Epidemiological terms; Epidemiological concepts and types; The importance of aquatic animal diseases; patterns of disease-epidemic curves; Epidemiological view of causality; Epidemiological association; Diagnosing disease, levels of diagnosis. Disease surveillance: Disease surveillance; Purpose and objectives of surveillance; Approaches to surveillance, Principles of active and passive surveillance; Sampling Principles and applications; Principles of data and specimen collection; Collection of information from people; Survey design and planning; Prevalence, Production and Incidence rate surveys. Surveillance data management: Principles and data processing, Computerized and manual data management; Epidemiological software for data analysis. Strategic plan for aquatic animal health: Aquatic animal health information systems; National and regional strategic plan for aquatic animal health; National and international disease reporting: Role of NBFGR, NACA, FAO, OIE, AQUAPLAN, etc., in disease reporting; Emergency disease preparedness.
Practical: Development of questionnaire; Farm survey; Collection of active and passive data on fish diseases; Data entry and data processing; Use of epidemiological software for data analysis.
Aquatic Wildlife Health
Content: Introduction to aquatic wildlife: Introduction to aquatic wildlife: Definition, diversity: cetaceans, Crocodilians, Sea turtles, Frogs, Sea lions, Seals, Sea otters, Insects, Birds; Principles on ‘one world and one health’. Aquatic wildlife habitats: Aquatic wildlife habitats; Ecosystem health; Aquatic ecosystem health indicators; Aquatic wildlife-related recreations; recognizing and preventing the impacts of principal stressors. Aquatic invasive species: Examples and role of aquatic invasive species in the transfer of exotic pathogens; prevention and spread of invasive species. Aquatic wildlife diseases: Diseases of amphibians; Infections with non-hyphal parasitic chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium detrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans, and ranavirus species; Disease issues in aquatic wildlife; Monitoring of diseases in aquatic wildlife; Infectious (viral, parasitic, bacterial) and non-infectious diseases (malnutrition, toxic algae poisoning, gunshots, boat strikes, shark bites) of aquatic wildlife; Entanglement in ocean trash; Disease reporting in dead aquatic wildlife; Aquatic wildlife die-offs; Fish kills and the causes; Handling of dead aquatic animals; Clean up; Carcass disposal and disinfection procedure; zoo and aquaria medicine. Anthropogenic factors and contaminants on aquatic wildlife: Effect of anthropogenic factors and contaminants on aquatic wildlife; The zoonotic potential of aquatic wildlife diseases; Aquatic wildlife rehabilitations. Health management issues: Health management issues in game fish, Fish ranging, etc; Health management of free-ranging aquatic wildlife populations; The impact of global climate change on the health of aquatic and marine wildlife populations.
Disease Diagnostic Techniques
Content: Introduction to fish disease diagnosis: Introduction to disease diagnosis; different roles and levels of diagnosis in aquaculture; The evolution of diagnostic techniques in aquaculture; A brief introduction to diagnostic features of important diseases of finfish and shellfish. Microbiological techniques: Safety in microbiology laboratory; Bio-safety levels and risk groups; Techniques in sterilization; Preparation of microbiological media; Culture techniques; Purification, Preservation and maintenance of bacterial and fungal cultures. Microscopic techniques: Bright field, Darkfield, Phase contrast, Fluorescence and electron microscopy. Cell culture-based diagnostic methods: Introduction to cell culture techniques; Different cells used for virus isolation; CPE. Protein-based diagnostic methods: Antibody-based diagnostic methods (immunohistochemistry, ELISA, western blotting, lateral flow assay etc), Hybridoma technology and monoclonal-antibody-based diagnosis. Nucleic-acid based diagnostic methods: Nucleic acid amplification methods; Types of PCR: Reverse transcriptase-PCR, Real-time PCR and Other variants of PCR; In situ hybridization; Dot blot assay; LAMP etc.
Practical: Sample collection and preparation for microscopic, microbiological, virological and histopathological analysis; Culture of microorganisms using conventional methods; Antibiotic sensitivity testing; Serological techniques in disease diagnosis: SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, etc; Cell culture techniques; Molecular techniques in disease diagnosis, Nucleic acid extraction, estimation and different PCR-based diagnosis; Familiarisation of some of the commercially available diagnostic kits used in aquatic animal disease diagnosis.
Fisheries Science– Fish Biotechnology (FBT) (M.F.Sc.)
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
Content: Structure and properties of genome: Genetic material, Content of the Genome, Structures of DNA and RNA; Stereochemistry of bases and secondary structures; Alternative forms of DNA structure; Organisation of bacterial, viral and eukaryotic genome; Physico-chemical properties of DNA (Tm, Hyper-chromaticity, Kinetic Classes, Buoyant Density etc.). DNA replication: Models of DNA replication in prokaryotes, Eukaryotes and viruses; Molecular events during DNA replication; The Replisome: E. coli and eukaryotes; Structure and function of DNA polymerases and types; Importance of Telomere and Telomerase in replication of chromosome termini. Transcription: Transcription in Prokaryotes – Bacterial RNA polymerase, Initiation, elongation and termination; Transcription in Eukaryotes – RNA polymerases and mechanism; Post transcriptional modifications; Structure and synthesis of rRNA and tRNA. Translation: Genetic code, Codon bias, Types and structures and active centre of ribosomes, tRNA structure, Wobble hypothesis, Mechanisms of translation and post-translational modifications in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the factors involved in various steps, Concept of polysomes and protein structure. DNA recombination: Homologous and site-specific recombination; Crossing over; Holliday junction; Transposition Mutations: Types, mutagens. Molecular basis of mutation, Mutations induced by chemicals, radiation, transposable elements; DNA Repair: DNA repair enzymes; Types and mechanisms; Methods for detection of DNA damage.
Practical: Good Laboratory Practices – Biosafety and disposal of hazardous material. Preparation of buffers and reagents. Tissue sampling techniques for isolation of DNA and RNA. Isolation of Genomic DNA by Phenol Chloroform Method. Isolation of Genomic DNA by Salting-out method. Isolation of Genomic DNA by CTAB method. Preparation of Media for cultivation of E.coli. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from E.coli by alkaline lysis method. Isolation of RNA by TRIzol method. Quality analysis of Nucleic acids by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. Nucleic acid quantification by spectrophotometer/nanodrop. Protein Purification. Separation of proteins by SDSPAGE. Separation of proteins by Native PAGE. Detection of mutation by Comet Assay.
Concepts of Cell Biology
Content: Basics of cell biology: Basic concept and evolution of cells, Cells to tissues; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture, Cell theory, Diversity of cell size and shape. Organization of cellular organelles: Organization and function of sub-cellular organelles – Cell surface, Cell membrane and types; Cytoplasm; Endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus; Lysosomes; Mitochondria; Ribosome, Nucleolus; Peroxisomes and Sub-nuclear structures. Membrane transport mechanism: Overview of membrane transport, Active/ passive membrane transport (Case study - Osmoregulation in freshwater and marine fishes) ion channels; carrier proteins. Cell signalling: Signalling molecules, Cell surface receptors, Secondary messengers and Intracellular signal transduction. Cell division: Cell cycle, Mechanism of cell division, Growth factors; Cell growth and differentiation; Cytoskeletal systems: Microtubules, Microfilaments, and intermediate filaments; Cell motility; Actin-Myosin filaments; Flagella; Cilia; Cell adhesions, Cell junctions and the extra cellular matrix. Protein sorting: Secretion and targeting; Vesicular traffic; Endocytosis; Exocytosis; Protein translocation and secretary pathways.
Practical: E. coli growth curve. Gram’s staining. Bright-field microscopy. Phase contrast microscopy. Fluorescent microscopy. Electron microscopy. Sample preparation for light microscope. Sample preparation for electron microscope. Microtomy. Isolation of organelles. Sub-cellular fractionation. Chromosome preparation. Histochemical techniques.
Gene Structure And Regulation of Expression
Content: Gene components: Genes, Types of genes; Gene structure: Promoters, UTRs, ORFs, exons, Introns, Termination signal, Mono- and polycistronic genes, Gene clustering; Overlapping genes (Phi X174 virus). Regulation of gene expression in Prokaryotes: Operon concept: Types of operons, Lactose and tryptophan operons (Lac/Trp), Their structure and mode of regulation; Induction of transcriptional factors by environmental and biological factors (SOS response), Bidirectional promoters. Regulation of gene expression in Eukaryotes: DNA protein interactions (concept of DNA foot printing, EMSA, zinc fingers, leucine zippers, helix turn helix, ZDNA); Transcription factors, Promoters, Enhancers, Repressors, Insulators, Attenuators, IRES, Alternative splicing. RNA in gene regulation: Antisense RNA, MicroRNA, Ribozymes, RNA interference. Expression Profiling: Micro array and Real time PCR, RNA seq. Epigenetics: DNA methylation, Genetic imprinting, Histone modifications, Chromatin remodeling. Mutagenesis: Site-directed mutagenesis and its applications, Transposon induced mutagenesis.
Practical: Total RNA extraction. Quality checking of RNA by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis. cDNA synthesis by RT-PCR. Retrieval of Gene information from NCBI/ENSEMBL. BLAST analysis. In-silico identification and analysis of promoters, transcription factors and other regulatory elements. Primer designing. Polymerase Chain Reaction. DNA purification from agarose gel. T/A cloning. Screening of recombinant clones by blue white selection. RACE-PCR. Real time PCR for absolute quantification of genes. Real time PCR for relative quantification of genes.
Content: Enzymes used in recombinant DNA technology: DNA modifying enzymes - types of restriction endonucleases (Type I, II and III), Alkaline phosphatases, Kinases, Exonucleases, Ligases, Terminal transferases. Vectors in genetic engineering: Plasmids (replication, copy number control and compatibility), Bacteriophages, Phagemids, Cosmids, M13 vectors, High capacity vectors (eg. BAC, YAC, PAC, HAC), Shuttle vectors; Adapters, linkers, ligation, Transformation and selection. Host organisms: Prokaryotic (selected E. coli strains) and Eukaryotic (selected yeast strains). Principle and applications of PCR: Principle of DNA amplification by PCR and applications, Optimization, Prevention of mispriming; Hot Start, Touchdown, Gradient PCR; T/A cloning of amplified products; Characteristics and types of thermostable DNA polymerases. Cloning strategies: Cloning strategies for prokaryotic and eukaryotic constructs, Promoter systems for high expression in E. coli; Cloning for in vitro transcription; Expression optimization and affinity purification strategies for recombinant proteins. Genomic and cDNA library: Shotgun cloning, Construction in high capacity vectors, Screening, and Applications; Chromosome walking. cDNA library: Construction and screening; and Clone characterization.
Practical: In silico DNA sequence analysis for cloning. Insert and vector preparation. Ligation. Preparation of competent cells. Transformation. Selection of transformed cells. Primer designing. Clone confirmation by colony PCR. Clone confirmation by Horizontal cell lysis. Southern blotting. Western blotting. Labeled probe preparation by nick translation. Random primer labeling of probe.
Bioinformatics Tools for Fisheries
Content: Basics of Bioinformatics: Overview of Bioinformatic resources, and applications. Platforms (Linux and Windows) and available software; Databases: Primary databases: nucleotide sequence databases, Protein sequence databases; Secondary databases; Structure databases; Analysis packages. Sequence Alignment: Dot Matrix, PAM, BLOSSUM Matrix, Sequence retrieval from online database, Simple pairwise alignment (BLAST) and Multiple sequence alignment. Sequence analysis: Retrieval of sequences, Sequence quality, Assembly and annotation of Sanger sequencing reads, Identification of cis acting regulatory elements, ORF finding, signal sequences in DNA and proteins, Data analysis tools for SNP and ESTs. Phylogeny and evolution: Evolution of genome, Basic force of evolution, Variation and divergence of populations, Estimation of divergence time; Phylogenetic species concept, Phylogenetic trees, Clasdistics, Concept of monophyly, Paraphyly and polyphyly, Phylogenetic reconstruction using distance-based methods (UPGMA, Neighbour-Joining), Phylogenetic reconstruction using character-based methods, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inferences, Principle, methodology, Tree comparisons and statistical tests, Parametric bootstrapping, interpretation of results and limitations.
Practical: Sequence retrieval from databases. Refining the search criteria by modifying different parameters. Sequence submission to databases (NCBI GenBank/BOLD). Pairwise sequence alignment (BLAST). Multiple sequence alignment by ClustalW. Identification of Open Reading Frame (ORF). Primer designing. Restriction site identification. Plasmid map drawing. Protein structure prediction using softwares. Construction of phylogenetic tree using MEGA/MrBayes/Phylip/PAUP. Analysis of results of phylogenetic tree.
Fish Cell Culture
Content: Basic of fish cell culture: Introduction, History, Development and importance of fish cell culture; Structure and Organization of animal cells; Biology of cultured cells. Primary Cell culture: Basic requirements for fish cell culture: Equipment, Media and supplements, basic aseptic techniques. Cell culture techniques: Establishment and maintenance of fish cell lines; Organ and histotypic cultures; Scaling-up of cell culture; Applications of fish cell culture /cell lines, Overview of methods used for characterization of primary culture / cell lines. Quality control: Quality control of fish cell lines, Prevention, Assessment of contaminants; Detection and cure of contamination, In vitro assays for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment, Stem cells; Stem cell cultures, Embryonic stem cells and their applications; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and its applications Applications of fish cell culture: Hybridoma Technology and its applications in fisheries, Overview of three dimensional culture and tissue engineering. Cryopreservation: Cryopreservation and storage of fish Cell lines, cell repositories.
Practical: General instructions to be followed in cell culture laboratory. Design and layout of a cell culture laboratory. Preparation of cell culture medium and medium filtration. Preparation of primary cell culture from selected fish tissues. Sub culturing by tripsinisation. Cell counting. Maintenance of fish cell lines. Cryopreservation and revival of cells. Measurement of doubling time. Characterisation of cells using cytogenic and molecular markers. Cytotoxicity assessment. Transfection of fish cells.
Content: Chromosome manipulation: Ploidy manipulation, Sex reversal, Androgenesis, Gynogenesis and applications, Transgenesis in fish: Methods of gene transfer in fishes, Screening, Applications of transgenic fishes, GMOs: Biosafety regulations, ethics and IPR. Molecular markers for aquaculture: Sources and significance of genetic variation, Biochemical and molecular markers, Development and applications of Allozymes, mtDNA markers, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, Minisatellites, Microsatellites and SNPs; DNA barcoding of fishes, FISH-BOL. Reproductive biotechnology: Overview of broodstock management and seed production, Induced breeding hormones and analogues; Seed certification through molecular techniques; Applications of nanotechnology in fish breeding. Microalgae culture methods: Indoor, Mass culture, Raceway system; Enrichment of micro algae with micronutrients; Fuel production from microalgae using biotechnological approaches; Pharmaceutical products from microalgae; Macroalage cultivation and propagation. Biotechnological tools in aquatic animal health management: Concept and techniques for the production of SPF and SPR stocks in crustacean aquaculture; Disease diagnostic techniques(PCR, RT-PCR, LAMP) and therapeutics – DNA vaccines and RNAi vaccines. Biotechnological tools in fish nutrition: Probiotics, and its role in aquaculture; Microbial flocs as feed for aquatic animals; Biofilms, Biofloc, Single cell protein, Bio-encapsulated feeds; Detection of contaminants in fish feed by biotechnology tools; Nutraceuticals, Nutrigenomics.
Practical: Fish Chromosomal manipulation – Androgenesis, Gynogenesis, Triploidy. Allozyme variation by PAGE, Gel imaging and scoring. RAPD and interpretation of results. PCR-RFLP and interpretation of results. AFLP and interpretation of results. Development and validation of microsatellite marker. Disease diagnosis of shrimp/ fish seeds using PCR/RT-PCR. Synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles. Delivery of nanoparticle conjugated hormones/drugs to fish. Isolation and screening of probiotic bacteria isolated from fish. Identification and culture of spirulina. Culture of live food organisms (Artemia/Rotifer/Moina). Different methods of gene transfer. Development of biofloc.
Content: Marine bioresources: Historical background, Overview of the present status of marine biotechnology, Commercially important and potential species, Micro and macro-algae, Their culture and application in aquaculture. Bio-prospecting: Bio-prospecting of genes and allele mining for novel compounds, Methods of bio-prospecting from marine environment; Marine derived pharmaceuticals; Marine bio-resources, Secondary metabolites, Marine proteins and lipids; Marine actinobacterial metabolites, Potential bioactive compounds from soft and hard corals, Marine sponges etc., Marine biotoxins and their pharmacological potential. Marine Enzymes and Polysaccharides: Biotechnological application of Marine Enzymes- amylase, Protease, Lipase, Cellulases and Chitinase from micro algae, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, Marine Polysaccharides- alginic acid, agar, Fucoidan and carrageenan from marine seaweeds. Environmental Biotechnology: Bio-film, Biofuel, Bio-remediation, Phytoremediation; Genetically engineered microbes for marine pollution control, Biofouling and prevention, Antifouling properties of marine organisms (algae, seagrass, marine microbes); Metagenomics; Concepts and applications.
Practical: Identification of microalgae. Isolation and culture of microalgae. Identification of seaweeds. Micro-propagation of seaweeds. Isolation and culture of planktons. Isolation of aerobic microbes from sea. Isolation of anaerobic microbes from sea. Extraction of bioactive compounds from seaweeds. Extraction of bioactive compounds from microalgae. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sponges. Screening of bioactive compounds.
Content: Genetic variation: Sources and significance of genetic variation; Statistical methods to estimate genetic variation. Biochemical and molecular markers: Type I and Type II markers; Development and applications of Allozymes, mtDNA markers, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, Minisatellites, Microsatellites and SNPs. Sequencing technologies and applications: Chemical sequencing, Chain termination and NGS. Genome and transcriptomic sequencing: Whole genome (Nuclear and Mitochondrial) and transcriptome sequencing and their applications. Marker Assisted Selection (MAS): Overview of linkage maps; FISH, QTL and genomic selection, Population genomics and applications. Application of Molecular Markers in Taxonomy: DNA Barcoding; Metabarcoding.
Practical: Allozyme variation by PAGE. Gel imaging and scoring of allozyme. RAPD. Interpretation of RAPD Gel and data analysis. PCR-RFLP. Interpretation of PCRRFLP Gel and data analysis. AFLP. Interpretation of AFLP Gel and data analysis. Development and validation of microsatellite marker. Genotyping of SSR markers. Genotyping of SNPs.
Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogenetics
Content: Molecular Basis of Evolution: Overview of genome structure; Sources of genetic variation (Recombination, Mutations, Indels, Gene duplication); fast and slowevolving sequences; Homologous, Paralogous and Orthologous genes, Concept of Neutral theory of molecular evolution. Evolution and Speciation: Allopatric, Sympatric and Parapatric speciation, Factors responsible for speciation Phylogenetic species concept, Phylogenetic trees, Concept of monophyly, paraphyly and polyphyly, Species delimitation, Gene trees and species trees DNA barcoding and concept, BOLD SYSTEMs and WORMS; Principle, Methodology, Application and limitations. Genetic distance measures: Observed and expected distances, Pair-wise distances, inter and intra specific distances; Concepts in phylogeny: Phylogenetic species concept, Phylogenetic trees, Concept of monophyly, Paraphyly and polyphyly. Phylogenetic tree construction: Phylogenetic reconstruction using distance-based methods (UPGMA, Neighbour-Joining), Principle, Methodology, Interpretation of results and limitations. Phylogenetic analyses: Phylogenetic reconstruction using character, Based methods, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inferences, Mesquites, Genepops, Phylogenetic tree importances.
Practical: DNA sequence analysis. Genomic databases. Genbank search and dataset download. Blast tools. EMBOSS tools. Sequence alignment, and editing, Data partition, Selection of the best substitution model. Use of Neighbour-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. Re-analysis and interpretation of reference data. Bioinformatic tools (MEGA, Phylip, PAUP, Mr Bayes and Fig Tree) for phylogenetic tree reconstruction.
Fish Processing Technology (FPT) (M.F.Sc.)
Low Temperature Preservation of Fish and Shellfish
Content: Postmortem changes: Structural and chemical features of fish and shellfish as raw material for processing, Factors affecting quality of fresh fish, intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Handling of fish onboard, Landing centres and farm sites-different types of chilling methods, Depuration of bivalves, Assessment of post-harvest loss. Chilled storage and transportation of fish: Heat load calculation, Storage methods- insulated boxes and insulation thickness, Different types of ice, Physical, Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory changes during chill storage, Melanosis and its prevention, Iced storage shelf life, Cold shock, Transportation- live fish/shell fish, transportation of raw fish to local markets and processing centres, Improvements needed in transportation, Refrigerated transport systems, Classification of transport vehicles, cold chain. Freezing of fish and shellfish: Structure of water and ice, Influence of solutes on the structure of water and ice, Phase equilibria and freezing curves of pure water and binary solutions, freezing curves for fish, Determination of freezing points from time-temperature plots, Calculation of freezing time; Crystallization, Nucleation- homogeneous and Heterogeneous nucleation; Super cooling, Crystal growth, Eutectic point, Location of ice crystals in tissue, Changes during freezing. Freezing methods: Technological aspects of freezing-methods of freezing (plate freezing, IQF, etc), Selection of a freezing method, Product processing and packaging, packing of fresh and frozen fish for consumers, Modified atmosphere packaging, Controlled packaging, Cold storage management-arrangements within a cold storage, handling and stacking systems. Changes in frozen storage: Physical changes, freezer burn and recrystallisation, Different types of recrystallisation, Chemical changes in lipids, Proteins and nucleotides, Freeze denaturation and theories on denaturation, Changes in pH, Bacterial changes, Sensory changes, texture, taste, odour, effect of post-mortem condition on sensory qualities. Prevention of quality loss during frozen storage: Treatments prior to freezing, Antioxidants, Cryoprotectants and other additives, Theories of cryoprotection, Glazing- importance and methods.
Practical: Handling of fish, crustaceans and mollusks, Evaluation of freshness of fish, crustaceans and molluscs, freezing curve, determination of freezing point, Filleting of fish, treatments, glazing, packaging, freezing, Processing of shrimp, lobster, squid, cuttle fish, crab etc. in different styles, Depuration-treatment with chemicals, Packaging and Freezing, Chemical tests (Histamine, k value) on frozen products and Studies on physical and sensory changes for determination of shelf life.
Thermal Processing of Fish and Fishery Products
Content: Principles of thermal processing and classification of foods: Mechanisms of heat transfer; Unsteady state of transfer; conduction, convection, radiation; Dielectric and microwave heating, Heat penetration, cold point; Low acid, medium acid and acid foods, Absolute sterility, Statistical sterility, Commercial sterility, Pasteurization and Sterilization, sous-vide. Canning process: Steps involved, Process flow, Additives, Principles and process details, Canning machinery and equipment, Canning process for fish/shellfish, Value added canned products; Spoilage of canned food, physical, Chemical and microbial, Examination of cans and seams, Effect of canning on nutrient profile. Basis of Thermal Process: Heat resistance of bacteria and spores, Decimal reduction time, Thermal death time, “D”, ”Z” and “F0” values, 12 D value, Significance of survivor curve and Thermal death curve. Thermal process calculations: Determination of process time and F value; Graphical, formula, Nomogram methods. Emerging trends in containers and heat treatment processes: HTST, UHT processing and aseptic canning, Flexible packing, Retort pouch processing of fish and fishery products principles and techniques; Combination and synergistic effects. Canning plant location: Practical considerations, Canning plant facilities, Layout and design, Automation in canning lines.
Practical: Operation of over pressure retort for canning, Canning operations for commercial important finfishes, Canning of shrimp and Cephalopods, Retort pouch processing of table fishes, bivalves, crustaceans, Examination of canned fishery products, Sensory evaluation of canned foods, Examination of can seams, Sterility test of canned products, Isolation of Clostridium spp, from canned foods, Heat Penetration Curve and Calculation of F0 Value, Z value, process time.
Applied Fisheries Microbiology
Content: Introductory microbiology: Classification, nature and activity of microbes in fish and fishery products; Microbiology of marine, Brackish and freshwater fish/ shell fish, Microbiology of spoilage and preservation. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of fish and fishery products that influence growth and survival of microorganisms. Pathogenic organisms of public health significance in seafood: The etiology of diseases; Conditions for outbreak and prevention, Food infections by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, pathogenic E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter; Virulence mechanisms, Their sources, Incidences, Foods involved and Prevention measures. Fermentation: Batch wise and continuous; Important fermented products and methods of production; Screening of microorganisms, Detection and assay of products of fermentation, Preparation and use of fermentation media, Starter culture, Preparation and maintenance of stock cultures. Microbial injury, Microbial biofilms, Inactive physiological states (spores and VBNC), Unculturable and Uncultured bacteria, Identification of unculturable groups. Advancement in diagnostic protocols: Molecular methods for detection of microbes in fish and fishery products.
Practical: Isolation and characterization of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, Sampling for TPC from fresh, iced and frozen fish, Selection of bacterial groups in iced fish, Isolation of fish spoilage bacteria, Enumeration of halophilic bacteria from salted fish, Fermentation by selected microbes, Assay of products formed; microbial composition of fermented fish and Conventional and molecular detection of pathogens.
Fish Quality Assurance, Management and Certification
Content: Hazards in fish and fishery product: Physical, Chemical, Biological, Quality management, Total quality concept and application in fish trade. Quality assessment of fish and fishery products: Physical, Chemical, Organoleptic and Microbiological quality standards. Inspection and quality assurance: Fish inspection in India, Traceability and authenticity; Factory sanitation and hygienization: National and international requirements, SSOP.
Applied Fisheries Biochemistry
Content: Proteins: Classification; structural proteins (actin, myosin, tropomyosin, actomyosin, paramyosin), Sarcoplasmic proteins (myoalbumin, globulin, hydrolases, oxidoreductases); Connective tissue proteins (collagen); Pigments, heme proteins, hemocyanins, Antifreeze proteins, Functional properties of seafood proteins, Solubility, Emulsification, Viscosity, Water holding capacity, Gelation, Denaturation of proteins, Dissociation, Aggregation, Coagulation, Reversibility and their significance to processing and quality. Lipids: Composition and nutritive value, Lipid types and their variations, Fatty acid composition of fish liver and body oils, Lipid fractionation, triglycerides, Phospholipids, Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their beneficial effects on human health, Auto-oxidation of fatty acids, pro- and anti-oxidants, Oxidation indices, lipid protein interactions, Oxidized lipids-protein interactions and their impact on quality, Rancidity, Lipases and phospholipases. Carbohydrates: Classification and biological significance of carbohydrates, Structure and properties of monosaccharides, Disaccharides and polysaccharides, Uses of modified starch and other carbohydrates as food additives (as thickening and binding agents), Changes in Carbohydrates during processing and relationship of carbohydrates to food stability, Gelatinization. Vitamins: Water soluble and Fat soluble, Heat labile vitamins, Process effecting on vitamins, Minerals; Major, Miner and Trace elements and their health benefits. Seafood flavours and pigments: Flavour, Taste and Odour, Chemical basis of flavour perception, Volatile fatty acids, Influence of processing on flavour, Nonprotein nitrogenous compounds; Free amino acids, Peptides, Nucleotides, Guanidines, Urea, Quaternary ammonium compounds. Fundamental techniques in food analysis: Basic principles of electrophoresis, Chromatography, TLC, Paper and Liquid Chromatography, HPLC, GC and GCMS. Principle and applications of Spectrophotometry.
Practical: Protein purification based on solubility, Separation of protein based on size and charge in PAGE, Separation of amino acids by TLC and paper chromatography; Enzyme assay by spectrophotometer; Amino acid analysis by HPLC, Determination of protein carbonyls, Extraction of lipids by different methods, Fractionation of lipids by TLC, Analysis of fatty acid composition by GC, Texture profile analysis and Estimation of unsaponifiable compounds in fish oil.
Value Added Fishery Products
Content: Significance of value addition: Protein deficiency and need for fortification of food, Digestibility and nutritive value of fish meat, Overview of value-added products; Present market trends, Scope of value addition, Types of value addition, important value-added products. Minced fish meat: Equipment for mince preparation, Effect of mincing on physical and chemical properties; Different types of mince-based products, Surimi. Surimi: Basic concepts, Different unit operations, Cryoprotectants in surimihypothesis and mechanisms, Packaging, freezing and storage, Quality evaluation of surimi, Kamaboko and analogue products. Battered and breaded products: Ingredients for batter and breading systems and their functionalities, Freeze dried products, Shelf life and specialties of AFD products, Machinery and equipment for freeze drying. Ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook products: Extruded fish products; Mechanism of extrusion, Types of extruders; Single screw, Twin screw, Mechanical and chemical changes during extrusion, Parameters affecting quality of extruded product, Cookchill products. Seaweeds: Resources, global and Indian scenario, Biochemical components in Seaweeds, Edible seaweeds – Nutritive value of seaweeds, Products from seaweeds.
Practical: Preparation of Surimi from low value fish; Evaluation of Surimi gel strength; Evaluation of ATPase activity of actomyosin based products; Preparation of analog products from surimi, battered and breaded products, extruded products, cook-chill products and seaweed-based product.
Trade Regulations, Certification and Documentation in Export of Fish and Fishery Products
Content: Trade policy and Legislation on labeling and other standards: Foreign Trade Policy of Fish and Fishery Products in Indian context and world context, Labeling requirements of Fish and Fishery products stipulated by National and International Organizations. Regulations: Export documentation- certificates of origin, Other certificates for Shipment of specific goods, Export licenses; Import regulations, SPS-TBT agreement. Labeling: Legislation on labeling; Labeling requirements for Traceability, Legislation on National and International standard requirements of seafood in export trade. Export Certification systems: Consignment-wise, In process Quality, Self- Certification, Food safety management system, Pre-shipment inspection, Voluntary food certification scheme, Certificate for export (CFE), Health certificate, Other certification, Traceability issues for farm reared and wild aquatic products; Dealing with returned consignments; Foreign trade regulations in India.
Practical: Documentation protocol for approval of fishing vessel, processing unit and technologist in processing plants. Labeling codes for Traceability of products in Export trade; Preparation of BOL and LC. Preparation of documents for seafood export to different destinations. Study of documents on customs and port procedures for seafood export and import.
Design, Maintenance of Fish Processing Plants and Instrumentation
Content: Plant design: Fundamentals of processing plant design, Site selection, Design and preparation of layout of processing plants, Freezing plant, Cold storage, Canning plant, dryers, etc., Plant design as pre-requisite for quality management, Functions and construction of refrigeration system; Tests and inspection, Operation and handling, Pressure-enthalpy (P-H) diagram and basic calculation, Application of PH diagram, Size and required power of compressor. Maintenance: Maintenance of refrigerating machine, Troubles and causes, Preventive maintenance of machinery and equipment of fish processing plants, IOF, Canning plant, Sausage plant, Artificial dryers, Smoking chambers, etc., Safety controls for freezing and canning plant, Boilers: classification and selection, Boiler mounting and accessories; Boiler maintenance. Affluent water treatment and chlorination: Effluent treatment; Legislation and standards of effluent discharge, Water pollution control measures in the food industry, Waste water treatment process; Dissolved air floatation, Sedimentation, Chemical treatment, Biological treatment, Aeration, Carbon adsorption, Granular media filtration and sludge handling. Measurement techniques: Sensors, active and passive sensors, Characteristic of sensors for the measurement of temperature, Relative humidity, aw value, gel strength; Moisture, Freshness, pH, Conductivity, DO, Redox potential, Salinity, Air velocity, Solar energy and Brine concentration.
Practical: Operation and maintenance of machinery and equipment for cold storage plant, freezing plant and canning plant. Operation and maintenance of dryers and boilers. Assembly of a refrigeration unit and charging of refrigerant. Measurement of temperature inside cold storage/freezer, Measurement of temperature in fish during freezing and thawing. Measurement of solar radiation. Designing of ETP systems.
Microorganisms of Public Health Significance
Content: Pathogens in seafood: Sources of pathogens in seafood, Infection and intoxication; Bacteria of public health significance in fish I fishery products I environments, Epidemiology, Clostridial and staphylococcal food poisoning, Organism responsible and their origin, Growth and toxin production, Nature of toxins, Incidence of poisoning, Foods involved. The etiology of diseases: Conditions for outbreak and prevention, Food infections by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, pathogenic E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Arcobacter; virulence mechanisms, Their sources, Incidences, Foods involved and prevention measures. Toxins: Histamine poisoning, Aflatoxins, patulin, Ochratoxin and other fungal toxins found in food, Toxin producer, source, Nature of toxin, Toxicity and significance in foods. Virus and parasites in fish; Algal toxins; Antibiotic resistance in microbes; Significance of AMR.
Practical: Laboratory techniques to detect and identify pathogens in fish - E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella, Listeria, Vibrio cholere, Vibrio parabaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. Animal bioassay of bacterial toxins.
Molecular Techniques in Seafood Quality Analysis
Content: Introduction to molecular biology: Nucleic acids, Structure, Replication, Transcription and translation, Genes, ORF, Organization of genes, Operons, Plasmids. Vectors used in cloning and their structures. Enzymes in molecular biology: Polymerases, Ligases, Restriction Enzymes, Topoisomerases. Molecular methods: Molecular methods and their principles, PCR, RT-PCR, Hybridization, Microarray, AFLP, RFLP. Immunological techniques in pathogen detection: Antigen-antibody reactions, Immunoassays-ELISA, FAT; Authenticity testing.
Practical: Conventional DNA extraction, Application of PCR for pathogen detection, Probe labeling and Southern hybridization, Primer designing, Tm determination, Agarose and protein gel electrophoresis, Cloning of genes, transformation techniques, Bioinformatic analysis of DNA and proteins, In-silico DNA and protein analysis, Restriction digestion, primer and probe designing, Protein structure prediction and Genome comparisons.
Packaging of Fish and Fishery Products
Content: Food packaging: Purposes and procedures; Technological aspects of packaging fishery products; Packaging for transport, Shipping and Institutional supplies; Packaging materials; Basic films and laminates, Their manufacture and Identification; Resistance of packaging materials; Development of protective packaging for fishery products. Transportation: Packaging requirements for transportation of live fish and shellfish, Methods of testing for packaging materials for their physical properties; Containers and their testing and evaluation; Package designs; Resistance of packages to hazards in handling; Transport and storage. Standards: Packaging standards for domestic and international trade. Labeling and printing of packaging materials: FSSAI requirements and BIS guidelines, Intelligent packaging; Edible packaging; Disposal and recycling of packaging materials.
Practical: Determination of grammage of paper and board, bursting strength and burst factor, punctures resistance, water proofness, stiffness of the board, ring stiffness of paper and board, flat crush, tensile strength and elongation at break of plastic films, density of plastic films, breaking length, impact strength of plastic films, tearing strength of paper and plastic films, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen transmission rate, heat seal strength, suitability of plastic films for food contact applications and Identification of plastic films.
Fish By-products and Waste Utilization
Content: Fish processing wastes and utilization: Overview of fish processing wastes, by catch and its composition, Liquid and solid wastes in fish processing, Bioremediation, Anaerobic treatment, Production of animal feed, Biodiesel. Fish meal, silage and oils: Fish meal production (dry and wet process), Nutritional importance and Quality requirements, Specifications, Packaging and storage, Fish silage; Acid silage and Fermented silage, Advantages over fish meal, Nutritional value of silage; Fish Oil; Fish body and liver oils, Extraction, Purification, Preservation and storage, Industrial and Nutritional applications of fish oils; Production of concentrates of polyunsaturated fatty acids, Preparation of fatty alcohol and amides, Extraction of shark liver oil, squalene, shark cartilage; ambergris. Fish wastes and utilization: Protein recovery - collagen, gelatin, extraction of enzymes; Shellfish Waste; sources and composition, Conventional uses, Chitin, Chitosan, Glucosamine hydrochloride, Carotenoids from Fish protein hydrolysates- Production and utilization, Biochemical composition and importance in food and nutrition, Functional properties of bioactive peptides; Shellfish waste and its applications, Biogas production from fish waste. Novel products from fish waste and uses: Uses of Gelatin, Collagen, Shark cartilage, Glucosamine, Carotenoids, Astaxanthin, Bioactive peptides.
Practical: Extraction of collagen from fish waste, gelatin from fish waste and enzymes from fish waste. Preparation of hydrolysates from fish and shellfish wastes. Extraction of chitosan and glucosamine from shrimp shell waste, Recovery of fish oil from fish waste.
Multivariate Analysis in Food Processing and Product Development
Practical: Importance of multivariate analysis in optimization of different variables to achieve desired traits in food processing, product development and sensory evaluation; Design and analysis of controlled experiments: Full factorial, Factorial, Central composite and Box-Behnken Designs. Exercises to develop suitable designs for extruded products and antioxidant extractions by using Unscrambler software; Response surface analysis: Selection of variables, design variables and response variables, selection of samples, modeling the response data using Unscrambler software, checking the predictive ability, response surface plots; Principal Component Analysis (PCA): Principal components, Bi-linear modeling of one single data matrix X, Score plot, Loading plot and Correlation Loadings; Regression: Principal component regression (PCR), Multiple linear regression (MLR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR): Modeling Y from the essence of X data set, Calibration and Prediction Models.
Fishing Technology and Engineering (FET) (M.F.Sc.)
Advanced Fishing Gear Technology
Content: Fishing gear design drawings: Survey of various fishing gears; Conventional and current practice for the representation of fishing gear by FAO specifications for scale drawing; The use of computers in the scale drawing of fishing gear to determine the defects in gear, design to develop new gears. Fishing gear selection: Use of fishing gear materials and their comparison; Selection of fishing gear, Analysis of the parameters of specific fishing gears and the derivation of empirical relationships for use in the design process. Fishing gear design and construction: Factors responsible for the choice of fishing gears; Design and construction of bottom, Mid-water and surface trawl; Gill nets and tangle nets; Types of gill nets – Simple gill net, vertical lines gill net, Framed gill nets, tangle nets and their technical characteristics, Two and three walled trammel nets, Combined gill nets; Purse seines and their classification, Longlines, Pole and Lines, Trolling line, Traps – Their classification and general principles of construction. Light and electricity in fishing: Attraction of fish – fishing with electricity and application in various fishing methods, Light fishing, Fish pumps; Operation and mechanization of long lining and jigging. Gear Selectivity: The selectivity of trawl fishing gears, Gill nets, Purse seine and longline, Design of otter boards for various types of trawl fishing; Factors to be considered in gill netting in selection of meshes for the different fishes; Aimed fishing using the modern electronic devices like echo sounder, Sonar and Net sonde. Testing fishing gear: Case studies relating to towed, surrounding and static fishing gear and their energy consumption, Fishing gear testing – full scale and model testing in flume tanks, methods of testing a fishing gear, External forces acting on fishing gears, The influence of design features on the overall economic performance of fishing gears.
Practical: Exercises on scale drawing of different types of fishing gears. Use of computer software’s programme in the design of trawl gears. Model net calculations, Calculations of energy requirements of different gears. Onboard experience of different fishing methods. Use of net monitoring instruments. Study of fishing gears through models of nets and field study. Making sketches. Reading of gear designs. – Trawl nets, Purse seines, Gill net and Long line. Familiarization with design drawing software. Design of otter boards and other accessories. Survey of gears and preparation of designs according to scale by taking measurements from a net.
Advanced Fishing Craft Technology
Content: Fishing craft: Different types of fishing crafts – trawler, stern and side trawler, Purse seiner, Long liner, Gill netter, troller etc; Main differences in the method of construction and design; Consideration regarding the speed and other fishing requirements, Deck layout and deck equipments of fishing vessels based on the fishing method; Planning internal capacities of fish hold, Engine room, Crew accommodation, Fuel tanks and Freshwater tanks. Boat materials: Choice of the construction materials; Comparison of materials used in fishing boat construction; Bio-deterioration of wood – marine fouling and boring organisms, Preventive measures, Raw materials, properties, Merits and demerits of FRP, Steel, Aluminium and Ferro-cement, Corrosion – types, Fundamentals, measurement and preventive measures. Steering gear and Hull: Principles of operating steering arrangement; Remotecontrol; Rudder – principles – types; Steering gear – Principle and operation – Mechanical and Hydraulic; Principal dimensions of boat, Importance of shape of underwater hull, Classification and description of hull forms based on shape; Form coefficients and proportionality coefficient for different types of vessels; Various ship motions at sea; Hull resistance; Behaviour of boats to waves from different sides. Stability aspects of fishing vessels: Factors affecting stability; Longitudinal stability – Trim, Moment of change of trim by 1 cm; Transverse stability – List, heel, LOLL, Meta centric height and meta centric radius, GZ curve, Degree of vanishing stability, Free surface effect, Hydrostatic curves, Dynamic stability, Stability criteria, Safety measures to restore stability in fishing vessels; Inclining experiment. Propellers and Power: Powering of fishing boats; power transmission system in fishing vessels; Effects of wetted surfaces on speed; Types of propellers; Designing principle power requirements of various types of fishing boats, Auxiliary power, Propulsive efficiency, Use of kort nozzle. Construction of fishing boat: Layout of a typical boat building yard, Various stages of construction, Description of various machines and tools used in boat building yard, Stages of wooden boat building – Sheathing of wooden hull – Steel boat construction and FRP boat construction, Inspection of fishing boat under construction, Care and maintenance of fishing boats – Factors causing damage, Hull protection methods and maintenance schedule, Inspection of damaged fishing vessels, Regulation of fishing vessels and classification of societies in various countries.
Practical: Basic principles of drawing, drawing of fishing vessels – line drawing – sectional view of the boat and keel assembly – half breadth & body. Visit to boat building yards for on – the – spot study of different stages of wooden boat construction and to study the layout. Identification of various tools and machines used in boat building. Study of various stages of boat construction with the help of boat models and making their sketches. Calculation of various dimensions; Study of deck lay outs of different types of fishing vessels and preparation of sketches; Visit to dry dock.
Content: CCRF: Scope and objectives of FAO Code of conduct for Responsible Fisheries, Articles of CCRF – Description of the code, Analysis of marine catch data (present & past); analysis of CCRF concept. By-catch: Elaboration of Article 8 – Fishing operations; By-catch and discards – Definitions, By-catch estimation methods, by-catch reduction devices, turtle excluder devices, Finfish and shrimp excluder devices. Selective fishing gear and practices: Selectivity of trawls, gill nets and lines – Environmentally friendly fishing methods and fishing gears – Energy conservation and resource enhancement. Fish Aggregation Devices (FADs and Artificial reefs): Objectives, Types of FADs and artificial reefs; Design and construction of FADs and artificial reefs; Energy optimization in fisheries – Methods of energy conservation in fish harvesting. Remote Sensing and PFZ: Application of Remote sensing, PFZ and GIS in fisheries. IUU - Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported fishing methods; Destructive and prohibited fishing systems and practices. Effect of fishing on non-target species: Effect of bottom trawl and gill nets on benthic fauna and habitats; Conservation methods issues and implications for biodiversity. Practical: Study of design and operation of BRDs and TEDs; Preparation of document listing and prohibited fishing practices; compilation of package of practices for energy conservation; interpretation of SST and Ocean colour charts, Study of Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) maps; problems on fishing gear selectivity; studies on impact of various fishing gears on environment and biodiversity.
Refrigeration and Electrical Engineering
Content: Principles of refrigeration: Refrigeration cycle; Vapour Compression system, Vapour absorption system, Steam Jet Refrigeration System, Solar energy based refrigeration systems; Application of Refrigeration in fisheries, Refrigeration in sea food processing plant – Refrigeration in deep sea fishing vessels – design and working of RSW and CSW – Coefficient of Performance (CoP) – ton of refrigeration – Refrigerator efficiency calculations. Heat load and efficiency: Heat load calculations – Insulations in freezers and cold stores – Frosting and defrosting in freezers and cold stores; Refrigeration in factory Trawlers; Types of Refrigerated transport. Refrigerants: Types and properties, Use of different refrigerants in seafood processing industry; Brine solution and dry ice refrigeration. General structure of electrical power systems: Power transmission and distribution via overhead lines and underground cables, Steam, Hydel, Gas and Nuclear power generation, Principal and application of DC Networks, Single phase AC Circuits, Three phase AC circuits, Magnetic Transformers, Induction motor, DC Motors etc. Electrical Measuring Instruments: DC PMMC instruments shunt and multipliers, multi-meters, Moving iron ammeters and voltmeters, Dynamometer, Wattmeter, AC watt-hour meter, Extension of instrument ranges. Principles and working of electronic components: Audio, R.F. circuits; Electron tubes, Transistors; Principles of electronic circuits; Amplifiers, Oscillators, Rectifier, Tuned circuits – Transmission of reception.
Practical: Practical Visit to refrigeration plants, heat load calculations. Handling and operation of refrigeration equipments – compressor, condenser, evaporator, liquid return system, gas purging, oil drain, oil charging, refrigerant charging, defrosting; Ice making and harvesting; study of various automatic control devices; expansion valves, L.P. and H.P. switches, solenoid valves. Study of various types of fish processing machineries; electrical motors, transformers, GPS, SONAR etc.
Content: Engine characteristics: Capacity of cylinders, IHP, BHP, FHP, BMEP, Torque determinations; SFC values, IC engines – Working cycles – Indicator diagrams – Performance number – Supercharging – Engine performance curves – Duel-fuel engines, Handling of IC engine and maintenances – Engine and boiler room arrangements – Steering gears – auxiliary engines – Heat exchangers – Propeller Shaft driver steam generators. Efficiency of engines: Compression ratio and thermal efficiency; Volumetric efficiency; Mechanical efficiency different ratings – continuous, peak, intermittent, Feel and lubricant – Strokes – Cooling method – Running characteristics – Size weight – Power requirement; Propulsion system – Combinations of engine, power transmission and propeller. Function of main engine: Friction, Clutch, Hydraulic coupling, Gearbox, Thrust; Bearing, Shafting, Propeller, Auxiliary machinery systems – Requirements of a winch, windlass, line and net hauler – estimation of their driving torque and
power; Operation of a hydraulic steering gear; Rudder torque. Engineering structure; Floating offshore structures –Diving – Underwater vehicles, Estimation grower requirement for various types of fishing – Efficiency group of fishing techniques – Resistance group of fishing methods – Computation of engine power.
Practical: Study of basic machine parts, shafts, keys, couplings, levers, joints, pulleys, belts, gears and bearings. Study of Engine parts, engine testing, dissembling and assembling a running condition marine engine; study of marine diesel engines, fuel consumption testing with load; Propeller calculations using the computers; calculations related to engine power- Power transmission in fishing vessels.
Introduction to Deep Sea Fishing
Content: Sea Laws: UNCLOS – Law of the sea, Base line -territorial waters, Contagious zones, EEZ and High Seas, Basics of Deep-sea Fishing-National deep-sea policies. Deep sea fishery resources: Oceanic Tuna and tuna like fishes, Oceanic Squids. Deep sea fishing gears and accessories – Tune long lining, Gill netting and squid jigging, Deckequipments in deep sea fishing vessel, Mother boat concept and factory vessels in deep sea fishing. Weather and warning: Wind, Wave, Current, Cyclones, Squally weathers, Doldrums, Weather forecasting and weather prediction at sea – Weather equipment and storm signals, Preparation and management of deep-sea fishing vessels.
Practical: Familiarization of meteorological equipments onboards. Storm signals and visit to signalling stations. Visit to deep sea fishing vessels to study the layout, manpower, facilities for deep-sea navigation and fishing, instruments and fleet management. Study on deck equipments in deep sea fishing vessels. Visit to fisheries departments and MPEDA to know about the initiatives on deep-sea fishing.
Fishing Harbour and Fleet Management
Content: Fishing vessel: FAO classification of fishing vessels, Indigenous fishing boats of India – fishing boats of maritime states of India, Fishing boats used in the inland and brackish waters, Account of mechanized boats introduced in India. Rules and Management: Personnel management, Planning of fishing cruises, Fishing fleet capacity, Fleet registration, fleet insurance, Seaworthiness assessment, Tonnage measurements Statutory rules and regulations under MSA, Classified societies, Manning regulations and requirements; Regulations to prevent collisions at sea. Classification and functions of fishing harbour: Facilities – waterside and landside facilities, Services and utilities provided, Layout of a modern fishing harbour, Stages in the planning of fishing harbours, Dredging. Economic evaluation: On fishing harbour project, Dry docks and slipway – Fishing harbour management and maintenance.
Practical: Visit to dry dock; Visit to Fishing harbour, Study of boats with the help of boat models and making sketches; Visit to various vessel types of fishing vessel.
Acoustics, Navigation and Seamanship
Content: Basics of acoustic fish detection: Basics of sound in water-Ultra sonic sound and its characteristics-Acoustic surveys in fish population studies- Acoustic equipments used in fishing. Acoustic Equipments: Advanced models of Echo sounder – Major components, specifications and uses; Sonar – specifications, types; Instruments used for evaluation of underwater gear performance, Acoustic trawl monitoring system. Navigation: Fishing vessel navigation – Recent advances in fishing vessel navigation – Methods of signalling in fishing vessels- Fixing of vessel position, Navigational charts- Rules of the road. Electronic Equipments: Global positioning system (GPS); Vessel monitoring systems (VMS) and AIS (Automatic Identification System) Navigation – Types, Navigational equipments, RADAR, Autopilot, Chat plotter. Seamanship: Handling of fishing vessels under all conditions at sea- Ropes and rope works– Their types, Handling; strength and preservation; Knots and splices; Anchoring mooring; Steering; Rolling and pitching. Accidents at sea: Accidents- causes- Preventive measures- Preparedness for Fishing vessels.
Practical: Chart work and navigational equipment, chart reading, position fixing, direction and distance in navigation -calculations; Operation of echo sounder, Sonar, GPS, Radar identification and study of navigation and fishing lights and day signals, distress signals and navigational equipments like compass, chronometer, aneroid barometer, sextant and logs.
Practical: Introduction to Engineering Graphics – Drawing instruments and their use – Different types of lines – Lettering & dimensioning – Familiarization with current India Standard Code of Practice for Engineering Drawing. Introduction to scales. Introduction to orthographic projections – Horizontal, vertical and profile planes – First angle and third angle projections – Projection of points in different coordinates – Projections of lines inclined to one of the reference planes. Projections of lines inclined to both the planes – True lengths of the lines and their angles of inclination with the reference planes – Traces of lines. Projection of plane laminae of geometric shapes inclined one of the reference planes – inclined to both the planes – auxiliary projections. Projections of polyhedral and solids of revolution – Frustum – projection of solids with axis parallel to one of the planes and parallel or perpendicular to the other plane – Projections with the axis inclined to one of the planes. Projections of solids with axis inclined to both the planes – Projection of spheres. Sections of solids by planes perpendicular to at least one of the reference planes – True shapes of sections, Developments.
GIS and Remote Sensing in Fisheries
Content: Aerial Photography: Basics of photography- terminologies- Photogrammetry - Stereoscopy - Principal points - Parallax and its measurement, Colours – Composite colour images. Remote Sensing - Electromagnetic Spectrum - Radiation laws - Interaction with atmosphere and surfaces, Spectral reflectance of earth materials and vegetation, Satellite Remote Sensing - Resolution - Scanning - Sensors, Land Observation Satellites - Visual image interpretation. Image and Data: Digital image processing, Image rectification and Image enhancement - Filtering - Band rationing, Image classification - Supervised & unsupervised classification, Remote sensing application in soil & water conservation. GIS - Types, raster, vector, Data base management systems, Data types, Spatial - non-spatial, Spatial data models, Spatial referencing, Map projections, Data input, Editing, Encoding, Raster data analysis, Vector data analysis. Satellite Application: NOAA and IRS- Satellites for Ocean and Fisheries studies- Digital image processing and interpretation, Application of remote sensing and GIS to fisheries and aquaculture planning and development. PFZ- Basics and application- Validation of PFZ data- INCOIS- Data Dissemination- Fishermen knowledge in PFZ
Practical: Study of satellite information, interpretation of satellite pictures for resource management, case studies on remote sensing and GIS applications. Development of GIS with local parameters related to fisheries- INCOIS data processing and interpretation- Collection and Validation of INCOIS PFZ data. INCOIS data dissemination methods among coastal fishermen. Survey of effectiveness and usefulness of PFZ data.
Sea Safety and Disaster Management
Content: Introduction to sea safety: Safe navigation procedures for fishing vessels; Distress Signals and DAT (Distress Alert Transmitter), and communication systems like VHF, SSB and INMARSAT; Familiarization with safety devices like SART, EPIRB and GMDSS. Accidents: Accidents associated with marine environment-crossing surf, Bad weather, Poor visibility storms, Loss of power at sea, Loss of way, Grounding, Collisions. Injuries from fish, Animals and machinery, Man, overboard and capsizing. Signals for fishing vessel safety: Agencies involved in fishing vessel rescue operations, Keeping watch at sea – Preventing collusions – Heavy weather preparations -Crew management. Fire onboard and Firefighting equipment: Fir accidents at sea- Types and causes for fire accidents-Firefighting methods- fire extinguishers-First aid at sea; Weather warning: Weather warning signals and weather reporting system for fishing vessels; Bad weather preparations for fishing vessels. Stranding and beaching of fishing vessels and refloatation procedures; Measures to enhance sea safety; International conventions related to sea safety. Types of natural and man-made hazards in fisheries: Cyclone, Tsunami etc., Characteristics and impact of various disasters, Preparedness for disasters at sea, Mass evacuation, storm shelters and survival platforms.
Practical: Study on various Distress Signals, Study on communication systems like VHF,SSB and INMARSAT; Familiarization with safety devices, study of fire fighting equipments used in fishing vessels, study of impact of various disasters, Disaster preparedness at sea. Weather warning signals. Sea safety equipments,Crew management during disaster.
Fish Processing Machinery
Content: Machines: Theory of machines; Transmission of power; Friction wheels; Toothed gears; Belt drive and drivers- Importance and need for the use of machineries in fish processing, Advancements in fish processing machineries. Graders and Deskinners: Conveyers-types and working, Graders-basic principles and types, Washers and Slime removing in fishes- Deskinners-types and working principles, Descaling and filleting machines: Descaling – machineries-types and working, Filleting machines, types and working, Gutting machines and Deheaders, Types and working, Quick freezers. Slicers and filleting machines: Fish slicing machines-types and working, Fish filleting machines-types and working, Deboners, Types and working, Advanced Thermal processing machineries, High pressure processing equipments, Advanced canning machineries. Boilers and extruders: Boilers -types and working. Extruders-types and working Twin screw extruders, Various Packaging machines. Machineries for fish meal plants. Maintenance: Fish processing Equipment Maintenance- Daily, weekly, monthly and annual Maintenance. Safety aspects of machineries and workers.
Practical: Study of various types fish processing machineries-washer, grader, deheader, filleting machine, retorts; calculation of power requirements and power transmission. Study of boilers and its operation, canning equipments, Twin screw extruders. RSW and CSW in fishing vessel- design and capacity calculations. Implements required for sushmi grade tuna processing onboard of the vessel. Packing machineries, Maintenance of various fish processing machineries.
Fisheries Economics (FEC) (M.F.Sc.)
Content: Consumer theory: Theory of Demand, Consumer Behaviour, Cardinal Utility theory, Indifference Curves theory, Income and Substitution effect, Derivation of demand curve, Consumer surplus, Equilibrium of the consumer, Elasticity of demand, Market demand, Constant elasticity demand function. Production economics: Basic theory of the firm, Concepts, Production functions, Isoquants derivations and applications, optimization behaviour, Alternative models, Short run and long run cost functions; Total price effect, Substitution effect, Output effect and Profit maximization effect decomposition analysis, Analytical approaches, joint products, Concepts and constrained optimization. Production theory: Theory of production and costs, Production functions, Returns to scale, Long run analysis of production, Law of variable proportions, Technological progress, Equilibrium of the firm, Choice of optimal combination of factors of production, Derivation of cost function from production function, Production function of a multiproduct firm, Iso-revenue curve of the multiproduct firm, Linear production functions, Linear programming. Theory of costs: Theory of costs, Cost curves, Traditional theory of costs, Modern theory of costs, Short and Long run costs, Marginal cost, Minimum Average Total Costs, Analysis of Economies of Scale, Social and Private costs. Factor pricing: Theory of Price in Perfectly Competitive markets, The supply curve of the firm and industry, Short run equilibrium of the firm and industry, Equilibrium of firm and industry in long run, Optimal Resource Allocation, The stability of equilibrium, Dynamic equilibrium with lagged adjustment, Futures market- Hedging/ risk assumption. Welfare economics: General Equilibrium theory- Two commodity exchange Production and exchange, Multimarket equilibrium, General equilibrium and allocation of resources, Factor ownership and income distribution, Welfare economics, Pareto optimality, Maximization of social welfare, Welfare maximizing state.
Content: Basic concepts: Nature and Scope of Macroeconomics, Methodology and Keynesian Concepts National income, Concepts and measurement (GNP, NNP, PI & DI), methods for measuring national income, Importance of NI analysis, Nominal and Real GDP, Balance of Payments (BoP), Meaning, Structure, Deficit and surplus, Disequilibrium, control measures. Theory of income and employment: Classical theory of Employment and Say’s Law, Modern theory of Employment and Effective Demand, Consumption function, Investment and savings; Consumption function, Average propensity to consume and marginal propensity to consume, Measure of propensity to consumption, Keynes’s theory of consumption and The determinants of consumption, Importance of consumption function. Investment and Saving: Saving function, Average propensity to save and marginal propensity to save; Investment function, Meaning, Types of investment, Determinants of the levels of investment, Marginal efficiency of investment, Induced investment. Multiplier and accelerator: Concept of Multiplier and Accelerator, Output and Employment, Rate of interest-Classical, Neo classical and Keynesian version, Theory of Multiplier, Concepts of investment multiplier, derivation of investment Multiplier, Importance of multiplier; Aggregate demand and supply; Unemployment, Meaning, types; Full employment. Monetary and fiscal policy: Inflation-meaning, types, Inflationary gap, Cause and effect of inflation, Control measures for inflation; Monetary policy – Meaning Objective, instruments, Fiscal policy – Meaning, Objective, Fiscal policy for economic growth, merits and Demerits of the fiscal policy. Public finance and expenditure: Public finance and Public expenditure – Concepts, types of public expenditure, Growth of public expenditure, Effects of public expenditure on production and distribution; Government expenditure (Taxation) – Government budget constraints; Tax- meaning, Classification, Characteristics of good tax system, Problems of equity in taxation.
Socioeconomics, Vulnerability and Fisherfolk Welfare
Content: Factors affecting socioeconomic status: An over view of socioeconomic status of fisherfolk in India, Livelihood and Income, Indebtedness, Poverty, Inequality and unemployment in fisheries, Regional disparities in wage, work and livelihood security, Equity theory; Risk and uncertainty in fisheries, Standard of living of fisherfolk, Saving, Income, Consumption, poverty, Health status. Socioeconomic analysis: Concepts in socioeconomics, Gender discrimination, Income inequality, Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve, Theil index, Livelihood Index, Engel’s curve, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (SEI), Occupational Status Score (OSS), Household prestige (HHP) score, Recent measurement of economic development NEW (New Economic Welfare), MRW (Measurement of Economic Welfare), PQLI (Physical Quality Living Index), HDI (Human Development Index)- Green GNP Index. Fisheries and climate change: Fisheries and climate change, Fisheries policy, Issues for future impact and adaptation, Socio economic condition and Fisheries policy, Fisheries and sustainability, Biodiversity of climate change, Indian fisheries current scenario in climate change, climate change threat, Impact of climate change in fisheries, Dynamics of climate change, Futuristic endeavour. Climate change impact analysis: Economic impact on climate changes, Climate change mitigation and adaptation, Ongoing initiatives and future strategies for fisheries sector, Methods and tools for climate change adaptation- Impacts of climate driven extreme events and disasters in fishermen communities, Social impact on climate change, Vulnerability assessment, Top down and Bottom up approaches, Socio-economic vulnerability, Criteria and indicators, Vulnerability assessment framework and methods, Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity, Vulnerability Index– SeVI. Legal instruments to mitigate climate change: An overview of international legal and policy framework to address climate change developed over time and points out some of the key issues under negotiation, History of international climate change negotiations and Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Key provisions of the UNFCCC, Its organisational structure, and different Party groups under the Convention, Kyoto Protocol and its associated bodies, as well as key commitments by Parties, An overview of main negotiation issues, Highlights some of the key issues relevant for a future climate change regime. Welfare economics: Fundamental theorems of welfare economics, Promising features of welfare economics, Welfare Schemes for fisherfolk in India, Women empowerment in Fisheries, Overview of fisherfolk welfare schemes, Fisheries Cooperatives, Corporations and NGOs in fisherfolk welfare development.
Practical: Assessment of socioeconomic parameters of fisherfolk in marine fisheries sector; Assessment of socioeconomic parameters of fisherfolk in inland fisheries sector; Consumption and savings behaviour of fisherfolk; Nutrition and Health analysis of fisherfolk; Case studies on effects on climate change in world fisheries with special emphasis to Indian fisheries; Climate change impact on coastal fisheries and aquaculture in India; Case studies on sustainability of fisheries sector in India; Case studies on climate change driven disasters affecting the fishermen communities in India; Effectiveness of fisherfolk welfare schemes; Impact of welfare schemes on fisherfolk.
Fishery Regulations and Ecosystem Valuation
Content: Fisheries regulations: Fisheries Regulations, Imperative needs for the regulation of marine fisheries in India, Types of fishery regulations, Possible objectives of fisheries regulations; Fisheries regulations followed in the maritime states of India. Aquaculture guidelines: Aquaculture; Guidelines under CRZ notification of 1991 and its Amendments, Land leasing policies, Regulations on use of chemicals and antibiotics, Features of Aquaculture Seed (Quality Control) Relevant Central/state legislative provisions of Environment, Wildlife, Water, Biodiversity: (riverine, reservoir and aquaculture), Processing in different States. Ecosystem valuation: Environmental and ecosystem valuation, The concept of value and valuation –Theoretical basis of valuation – Consumer surplus, Compensating variation and equivalent variation, Cost-benefit analysis of a conservation project, Ecosystem valuation, Payment for ecosystem services, Ethical issues in valuation, choice of discount rate. Methods of valuation - Revealed preference methods: Taxonomy of ecosystem values, Use value, non-use value, Direct and indirect use value, Existence value, Bequest value and option value, Revealed preference methods, Change in productivity method – Averting behavior and substitutable private, and Environmental goods, Models for bundled attribute goods, Hedonic of differentiated commodities, Discrete choice model of differentiated commodities, Hedonic property value model, Replacement cost approach, Substitute goods approach, Travel cost methods. Methods of valuation –Stated preference methods: Stated preference methods, Contingent behavior, contingent valuation techniques, Willingness to accept and willingness to pay, Bidding games, Choice experiment approach, Combining revealed preference and stated preference methods, Discrete choice models for stated preference data, Validity of stated preference data, Other methods, Benefit transfer. Risk valuation and assessment: Morbidity and Mortality Risk Valuation, Risk assessment and the environment, Conceptual models, Health production model, Endogenous mortality risk, Measuring the value of a statistical life, Wage hedonics, Valuing health changes, Defensive expenditures and cost of illness, Economic valuation of biodiversity, Measurement of carbon sequestration benefits, Measurement of climate change impact, Agronomic vs. economic methods, Ricardian model, Just-Pope model.
Practical: Contemporary global environmental issues, movement, policies, programmes, laws and other regulatory mechanisms; Fishery regulation in India; Criteria for evaluating the environment related projects and review of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) techniques; Recreation demand models of environmental valuation – Contingent valuation techniques – Environmental Resource Accounting Techniques; Practical considerations and comparison of instruments of environmental policy; Non-Point source pollution control methodologies - economic valuation and environmental economics; Exercises on change in productivity method; Replacement cost method with examples and insights from literature; Exercises on hedonic pricing. Travel cost method – design and application with example, Stated preference approaches – Contingent valuation methods; Measuring WTP and WTA – Empirical exercises.
Marketing Intelligence and Business Analysis
Content: Research methodology: The role of marketing intelligence in the firm, The process of marketing research, The difference between exploratory and confirmatory research, Secondary and primary data, Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, Sampling theory. Requirements in business analysis: Requirements in Business Analysis, Management, Communication, Tracing, Configuration and change management, quality assurance, Development, Elicitation including stakeholders and/or product requirements development, Specification. Business analytics: Business Analysis, Internal analysis, External analysis, Business need definition, Gap analysis, Solution proposal (including feasibility analysis), Solution delivery or maintenance program/project initiation- Business process definition, Business goals, Business needs, Business requirements, Limitations and assumptions. Modelling and forecasting: Solution modelling, validation and verification, Solution evaluation and optimization, Assessing the solution options (proposals), Evaluating performance of the solution, Solution/business process optimization, Model Volatility with ARCH and GARCH for Time Series Forecasting. Marketing research: Definitions of the various methodological concepts –Various steps involved in designing a research plan, Data collection methods; Characteristics, Structure, Sources, Value, and use of Big Data, The relationship between digital analytics and inbound marketing strategies, Consumer information and measurement services, Rules for designing a questionnaire. Data analysis in marketing research: Data sources for assessing consumer preferences, firm performance, and market condition and competition- analyze enterprise data, especially for purposes of segmentation, targeting, positioning, and evaluating consumer value- process of organizing, writing, framing, and refining analytics reports- delivering effective presentations, and aligning analytic results with stakeholder needs and preferences.
Practical: Marketing Research – ethics, standards and issues; Utilisation of Secondary Data Resources for Customer Segmentation Pricing and Elasticity; Linear Regression Basics; Using Linear Regression to Forecast; Conjoint Analysis; Digital Marketing Metrics Customer Lifetime Value; Cluster Analysis; Finding and interpreting secondary data; Suggesting a methodology for fisheries marketing research; Tools and concepts of data visualization.
International Fisheries Trade
Content: Introduction to international economics: International Economics, Concepts and scope, Nature of international trade, Difference between domestic and Foreign trade; Theories of international trade, Absolute and comparative advantage, Modern theories of international trade, Hecksher Ohlin theorem. Concepts in trade: Concepts of terms of trade, Free trade, Protection, Tariffs, Quantitative restrictions and other non-tariff measures; Exchange rate; Devaluation and depreciation; Balance of payments, EXIM policy of India in relation to fish and fishery products. Export- Import procedures: Export- Import procedures, and certification, Growth of marine product exports – MPEDA and its development programmes. Institutions and trade policies: GATT and WTO, transition from GATT to WTO, WTO provision and its agreements; Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), Agreement on SPS measures and its salient features, Role of Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and Agreement in Trade Related Intellectual Property rights (TRIPs) WTO in dispute settlement.
Practical: Pattern and performance of India’s seafood exports; Product and market diversification; Competitiveness of Indian fish and fish products; Exports of value added seafood products; Case study of a seafood export firm; Use of SPS / TBT measure; Non-tariff barriers in fisheries trade; Dumping and anti-dumping measures in seafood trade.
Fisheries Finance, Accounting and Control
Content: Principles of finance: Importance of fisheries finance; Principles of fisheries financial management, Rural credit structure, Demand and supply, Sources and forms; Estimation of credit requirement; Cost of Credit/capital; Credit appraisal. The concept of 3C’s, 7P’s and 3R’s of credit, District Credit Plan and lending to agriculture/priority sector Micro-Financing. Reforms in policies and institutions: Reforms in fisheries credit policy; Innovations in fisheries financing, Micro Finance, Role of institutions in fisheries, Finance, Public and Private sector banks; Cooperatives, Micro-finance institutions (MFIs), SHGs; Financing through Co-operatives, NABARD and Commercial Banks and RRBs International Financial Institutions; Successes and failures of co-operative sector in India; Role of co-operatives under emerging economic scenario. Capital and cost concepts: Sources of long-term finance and cost of capital; Concepts of components of working capital, Managing working capital, Cash management, Dividend decision; Capital budgeting, Appraisal criteria; Fish business financing system in India-money and capital markets, National, regional and global financial institutions; Insurance; Risk management; Micro-credit. Project formulation and appraisal: Elements of project cycle; Identification, Preparation, appraisal, Financing and implementation of projects, Project Appraisal techniques; Undiscounted measures, ranking by inspection, Pay-back period, Average annual proceeds per unit of outlay, Time value of money, Use of discounted measures, Derivation of incremental net benefit; B-C ratio, NPV and IRR, Project management Net-work Techniques – PERT and CPM. Accounting types: Branches of Accounting, Internal and External Users of Accounting, Financial Accounting, Meaning, Need, Concepts and Conventions; Advantages and Limitations, Accounting Standards, The Double Entry System, Its Meaning and Scope, The Journal, Cash Book, Ledger, Trial Balance, Trading Account, Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet, Entries and Adjustments of different heads in different Books and Accounts, Introduction of Company Accounts. Accounting management: Management Accounting, Meaning, Functions, Scope, Utility Limitations and Tools of Management Accounting, Cost Accounting, Basics, Significance, Objectives, Classification of Costs, Marginal Costing. Responsibility Accounting, meaning and significance, Budgets and Budgetary Control-Types of Budgets.
Practical: Rural Lending Programmes of Commercial Banks; Lead Bank Scheme-Preparation of District Credit Plan; Preparation of financial statements using farm/firm level data; Farm credit appraisal techniques and farm financial analysis through financial statements; Different case studies on fisheries cooperative societies and their performance (marine and inland sector); Practical exercise on PERT and CPM; Ratio analysis; Valuation of project inventories; Project appraisal techniques– undiscounted and discounted measures; Company accounts format and formatting.
Introduction to Econometric Tools
Content: Nature and scope of econometrics: Definition and Scope of Econometrics; Methodology of econometrics, The nature of the econometrics Approaches, Simple regression estimation and testing procedures, Stochastic and Non-Stochastic relations, Statistical properties of least squares estimators, Confidence interval and Hypothesis testing, Goodness of fit, Reporting the results of regression Analysis; Matrix Algebra. Introduction to classic linear regression analysis: Two variable regression model, The basic assumptions; Application of regression model, The covariance and covariance estimator, Functional forms of regression models and methods of estimation; Cobb-Douglas Production Model, Multiple regression model, Relationship between simple and multiple regression coefficients; Auto correlation- Heteroscedasticity; Multicollinearity; Meaning and problem, Autoregressive models for univariate time series stationary data (AR), Trend (ARIMA), and Seasonal component (SARIMA). Regression models and forecasting techniques: Simultaneous – Equation Models; Problems of Simultaneous equation model; Multinomial regression models Ordinal – Regression models. Forecasting with regression model: Panel data regression models, Survival analysis, Parametric and non-parametric tests in Social Sciences; Adhoc procedures in Regression analysis, Estimation of Probit, Logit and Tobit Probability Models.
Practical: Analysis on fitting classical linear regression models; Detection of multicollinearity; Forecasting models; Heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation for the given data sets in fisheries; Parametric and non-parametric tests; Data analysis in MS excel, SPSS and STATA; Forecasting models that can be developed for univariate time series data.
Management of R&D Innovations and Policy
Content: Innovation and technology: Innovation, productivity and economic growth; Nature, process and importance of technological innovation, Role of fisheries in economic and rural development. Fisheries in economic development theories: Growth stage theories, Structural transportation leading sectors and dual economy models, Technology adoption, Diffusion and transfer, Theoretical models and case studies, Technology, Resources and environment. Fisheries research systems: Fisheries research systems, Evolution and growth, Selected case studies of major countries, Investment trends, International comparisons, Institutional details; Changing public-private roles in technology development, Institutions and fisheries development; Collective actions, property rights, Transaction cost economics. Theories and policies: Need for separate/sound fisheries policy, Resource polices, Credit policies, Input and product marketing policies, Price policies, Theories of fisheries development, Conservation, Urban industrial impact and Diffusion, Highpay- off input, Science and technology policy, Regulation, Incentives; Technology and Intellectual Property Rights, selected case studies.
Practical: Measurement of productivity growth; Exercise on total factor productivity; Using frontier production function; Institutional structures and national and international fisheries research systems; Ex-ante and ex-post methods of estimation of R & D impacts in fisheries.
Economics of Fisheries Enterprises
Content: Production economics: Aquaculture in economic development, Production concepts in aquaculture Production function, Cost and return concepts in aquaculture, Optimization of use of single resource, Cost of production, Short run production cost, Long run cost, Production function analysis in various aquaculture system, Preparation of financial statements-Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement and Profit and Loss Account, Ratio Analysis and Assessing the performance of farm/firm. Planning and budgeting: Farm income and budget analysis, Planning and budgeting, Aquaculture management decisions, Resource, labour and financial management, Managing risks and uncertainties, Economics of different aquaculture systems, Socio economic issues, Causes for aquaculture problems, Government support policies for inland, Coastal and marine aquaculture systems. Value Chain Management concept: Value Chain Management concepts, Value addition in fish marketing, Constraints and approaches to VCM in fisheries sector, Domestic and external markets for fisheries products, Export – Infrastructure development from landing to marketing. Value chain analysis: Post-harvest operations in inland and marine fisheries including deep sea fishing, methodological issues in marine capture fisheries, needed measures for the constraints in post-harvest operations.
Practical: Estimation of cost and returns of different aquaculture systems in India; Production trends of aquaculture in India for the past 10 years and the projected production estimates; Production function analysis; Planning and budgeting; Financial analysis in aquaculture production systems; Case studies of various aquaculture systems in India; Visit to various shrimp hatcheries or farms; Visit to various finfish farms and ornamental units; Visit to various craft and gear manufacturing units; Cost and returns of marketing establishments including export processing firms.
Fisheries Development Planning and Policy
Content: Planning: Planning Commission era, Organisation, role and functions, Planning in India, Objectives, Strategy, Allocation, Achievements and Bottlenecks, Types of planning, Stages in planning process, Planning models. Impact of development plans, International co-operation programmes, NITI AYOG; Planning under NITI AYOG; Planning and development in China and Russia; Planning and Free Market economies. Fisheries development schemes and policies: Fisheries Development and policy under the plans, Fisheries schemes; NFDB; NABARD schemes, State and center sector schemes and centrally sponsored schemes, Central Department of Fisheries; Agriculture policies, Need for a separate fishery policy, National Marine Fisheries Policy; Leasing policies for inland and brackish water bodies in different states, National Mariculture Policy; National Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture policy, Inputs Policy, Financing and Credit Policy, marketing and pricing policy, Export -Import Policy. Importance of fisheries in rural and economic development: Importance of Fisheries in rural and economic development, Centre and state level policies for fisheries, Fisheries policy issues, Fisheries sector strategy, Various resource policies, Fisheries policy and Legislation, Development of Fisheries during the Five-Year Plans, Fisheries credit and marketing policies. Planning and cooperation: Fisheries planning, Economic factors influencing development and co-operation in fisheries, Fisheries management, Role of fisheries in rural development and Policy initiatives, Economic planning in fisheries, Problems of development Planning, Fishing policies and economic growth, Panning and policy analysis, Fisheries project planning. Fisheries legislation: Fisheries legislation in India, background, Indian Fisheries Act of 1897 and Subsequent amendments; Marine capture fisheries, Comparative study of Marine Fishery Regulation, Acts of coastal Indian States – licensing/ registration of vessels and mechanization, Declaration of closed season, Protection of endangered species, Prohibition of destructive fishing methods, Regulation of mesh size, Filing of return on fish catch and income, Features of MPEDA Act and Rules, 1972. Legislative policies: Guidelines for operation of Indian deep sea fishing vessels in Indian EEZ, Maritime Zone of India (regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Act 1981, Aquatic exotics and quarantine regulations, Marine Fisheries Policy, 2004. Coastal Aquaculture authority; Aquaculture Guidelines under CRZ notification of 1991 and its Amendments, Land leasing policies, Regulations on use of chemicals and antibiotics, Features of Central/state legislative provisions of Environmental, Wildlife, Water, Biodiversity: (riverine, reservoir and aquaculture), Processing in different States.
Fisheries Project Management
Content: Finance and management: Sources of long term finance and cost of capital; Concepts of components of working capital, Managing working capital, Cash management, dividend decision; Capital budgeting, Appraisal criteria. Financing system in India: Financing system in India, Money and capital markets, national, Regional and global financial institutions; Insurance; Risk management; Micro-credit. Project formulation: Elements of project cycle, Identification, Preparation, Appraisal, Financing and implementation of projects, Project Appraisal techniques, Undiscounted measures, Ranking by inspection, Pay-back period, Average annual proceeds per unit of outlay, Time value of money. Project Evaluation: Identification, Preparation, Appraisal, Financing and Implementation of projects, Project Appraisal technique, Undiscounted Measures, Time value of money, Use of discounted measures, B-C ratio, NPV and IRR, Agreements, Supervision, Monitoring and Evaluation phases in appraising fisheries investment projects, Net worth Techniques–PERT and CPM.
Practical: Rural Lending Programmes of Commercial Banks, Lead Bank Scheme; Insight on District Credit Plan; Preparation of financial statements using farm/firm level data; Farm credit appraisal techniques and farm financial analysis through financial statements; Different case studies on fisheries cooperative societies in India; Visit to marine and inland cooperatives to analyse performance; Practical and Case studies: Ratio analysis, valuation of project inventories; Project appraisal techniques– undiscounted and discounted measures.
Fisheries Extension (FEX) (M.F.Sc.)
Global Extension Landscape
Content: Basics of extension & advisory services: Genesis and Evolution of Extension; Understanding education, Extension education, Extension research and Extension service; Formal, Informal and Non-formal education; Principles and Philosophy of Extension Education; Meaning and Importance of Extension and Advisory services (EAS); Core competencies of an extension professional beyond ToT, Performing new functions to deal with new challenges. Extension systems and approaches: Public Extension Systems in India, Historical as well as current systems at state (DoF), national (NAREES) and international levels (WF, NACA, FAO, ICSF, WAS, AFS); Extension systems in different regions: South Asia (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka), South East Asia (Japan, China, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam), USA, and Europe, Extension approaches (General extension approach, commodity specialized approach, T & V approach, Participatory approach, Project approach, Farming systems approach Cost-sharing Approach, Educational institution approach); Paradigms of agricultural extension (Technology transfer, advisory work, Human resource development, Facilitation for empowerment); RRA and PRA, Participatory Learning and Action (PLA), Participatory technology development (PTD); Fisheries Co-management; ATMA; Marianad model, BENFISH, Matsyafed model. Extension delivery: Pluralism in Extension Delivery, Private sector (input firms, aqua-business companies, consultants); Non-Governmental Organisations (National/ international)/Civil Society Organisations (CSOs)/SHGs in providing extension; Farmer Producer Organisations - Scope, Strength and Weaknesses-experiences; Media and ICT based extension services; Managing pluralism in EAS – challenges and experiences. Extension programs and institutions development: Meaning, Concept and Major paradigms / models; Agriculture and rural Development programs; Important pre-independent extension programs; Extension/ToT programs: NES, ND, ORP, KVK, LLP, FSR & E, TAR-IVLP, NATP, NAIP, NMAET; Fisheries policies and programs: FFDA, BFDA, Blue revolution schemes; Institutions: NFDB, MPEDANETFISH, NaCSA, CAA, ICAR-FIs, NITIAayog, MANAGE, EEI. Challenges before extension and advisory services (EAS): New Challenges before farmers/fishers and extension professionals; Supporting fishers/farmers to manage the declining aquatic resources/CPRs; Gender Mainstreaming, How extension can enhance access to knowledge/resources among women & men fishers/ farmers; Nutrition- Role of extension in promoting fish as healthy food; Linking fishers/farmers to markets; Adaptation to climate changes- How extension can contribute to up-scaling climate smart fisheries/aquaculture. Supporting family farms: Doubling fishers/farmers income; In and out Migration in inland and marine fisheries; Attracting and Retaining Youth in Fisheries/ Aquaculture; Fisher/Farmer distress; Facilitating access to credit, Inputs and services; Networking and partnership development including GFRAS (Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services) and its regional networks; Extension and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Financing Extension; Mobilizing resources for extension; Strengthening extension policy interface, Generating evidence on impact of extension and policy relevant communication.
Practical: Visits to formal, informal and non-formal educational organization and familiarizes their functional activities, Technology of transfer, advisory work, and Human resource development in fisheries programmes, ToT models of ATMA, Marianad, BENFISH, Matsyafed, etc., Public and private extension services of aqua-business companies, consultants, SHGs, KVK, NATP, NAIP, FFDA, BFDA, MPEDA-NETFISH, NaCSA, CAA, etc., Global and national ICT based fisheries extension services, Gender Mainstreaming in fisheries for poverty reduction, Climate resilient fisheries/ aquaculture, Review of national, state and regional extension networks and policies.
Communication and Journalism
Content: Communication: Meaning and importance, Perspectives, Characteristics, Elements, process, Types (Individual, group and mass communication), Directions(Upward, downward and horizontal) and Levels of communication; Verbal and non-verbal communication; Message - meaning and dimensions; Message distortion types; Barriers to Communication; Noise; Key Communicator, Homophily and Heterophily, Credibility, Fidelity, Empathy and feedback in communication; Communication skills & Competence, Communication effectiveness; Theories and Models of communication. Media and development communication: Audio Visual aids; Classification and selection; Traditional Media and Methods for communication and development programmes; Extension teaching methods; Extension & Development Communication- concept, importance and approaches; Organizational communication; Modularized communication, Business communication-concept, methods and processes; Use of social media in communication; Media mix. Understanding the structure and construction of news: Language and principles of writing; Basic differences between the print, electronic and online news, Organising a news story, 5W‘s and 1H, Inverted pyramid Criteria for news worthiness, Principles of news selection, Use of archives, Sources of news, Use of internet. Journalism: Journalism – Meaning, scope and importance, principles, theories; Development journalism – meaning, scope and importance, principles, theories; Growth of and challenges for development/ farm journalism in India Facets of Journalism: Basics of Writing – News stories, Feature articles, Magazine articles, Farm bulletins and folders; Art of clear writing: Readability and comprehension testing procedures; Script development and Story board preparation; Magazine journalism - profile and feature writing; Radio and television journalism - principles and practices of gathering, writing and producing news for radio and television; Photo journalism - visual language, skills and techniques; Photography; principles and use in extension; New media journalism – websites, blogs, social media; Responsible journalism - fairness and balance, libel, and the commercial nature of the media, Constructive criticism; Advertisements – principles and practice. Media role: Role in democracy, Responsibility to society, Press and democracy, Contemporary debates and various issues relating to media, Ethics in journalism.
Practical: Communication skill development and public speaking; Developing extension materials: folders, leaflets, booklets, newsletters, popular and scientific articles, blogging, etc.; News writing and success stories writing; Digital photography and image editing; video production; Visit to news channels/ printing press/fishing villages; Organization of content - choice of media, categorization of photographs, queuing of audio and video clips, logical sequencing, text entry; Identification, articulation and analysis of major issues related to fisheries; Critical analysis of fisheries related news stories and feature articles from development magazines / newspapers; Designing, editing and publishing campus newsletters; Interface with editors of journals and magazines; Critical analysis of fisheries related radio news stories; Producing radio news items for broadcast; Digital photography and image editing; Study and practice of various kinds of video editing systems; Practice and use of digital photography.
Knowledge and Innovation Systems
Content: Knowledge systems: Knowledge- meaning, Epistemology, Sources and types; Origins of the innovation systems concept, Innovation vs Invention; Agricultural/ Fisheries Innovation System (AIS) and AKIS; Role of different actors in AIS; Importance of interaction and knowledge flows among different farming sectors. Innovation systems: Innovation – definition – innovation decision process, Role of Extension in AIS, Different views to analyse AIS, Structural view, Functional view, Process view and Capacity view. Diffusion and adoption process: Diffusion – meaning and elements; Diffusion research and its criticism; Generation of innovations in fisheries – Innovation development process; Concept and stages of Innovation-decision process; Diffusion process, Adoption process, Models of diffusion and adoption, Adopter categories and their characteristics; Factors influencing adoption and attributes of innovations. Change agents in the adoption process: Change agent – meaning, roles, factors of success; Centralized and decentralized diffusion systems; Innovation in organizations; Consequences of innovations - model and classification; Opinion leader – Meaning, Characteristics, Types, Their measurement and Role Critical mass. Indigenous knowledge systems: Indigenous knowledge - meaning, scope and importance, Types and systems; Indigenous vis-a-vis Scientific knowledge; Indigenous-Information, Practices and technologies; Documentation, Validation, Conservation, and Dissemination of ITK and Grassroots level innovations in fisheries; Access and use of indigenous knowledge; Peoples’ Biodiversity Register; Issues in protection of traditional knowledge / ITK - understanding Indian Biological Diversity Act and National Biodiversity Authority, Limits to benefit sharing – IPR, Prior Informed Consent, TRIPS vs. CBD; Integration of Indigenous knowledge and modern technologies. Enabling and scaling up innovations: Role of enabling environment; Policies and institutions in enabling innovation; Methodologies for AIS Diagnosis; Typologies of existing methodologies, strengths and limitations; Scaling Up; Definitions, Changing views on scaling up, Approaches to Scaling Up: Push, Pull, Plant, Probe; Scaling up pathways; Drivers and spaces for scaling up; Framework and Tools for Scaling up; Planning and implementing a scaling up pathways; Scalability assessment tools; Role of policies in scaling up: Influencing policies for scaling up; Innovation Management for scaling up knowledge and implications for Extension and Advisory Services.
Practical: Documentation of ITK in fisheries; Development of Case studies of ITK in fisheries; Institutions and NGOs involved in ITK collection and validation, testing appropriateness of ITKs; Concept mapping; describing fisheries technologies; explaining case study of the diffusion process of select fisheries innovations; Identify one fisheries activity and use AIS framework to diagnose actors and their roles, patterns of interaction, institutions determining interaction and the enabling policy environment and develop an AIS Diagnosis Report (Review and Key informant interviews); Undertake a case study on a successful case of scaling up knowledge and identify factors that contributed to its success; Identify one specific knowledge (a technology, an approach) that has been recently introduced and develop an Upscaling Strategy.
Organisational Behaviour and Development
Content: Basics of organizational behaviour: Introduction to organizations-Concept and Characteristics of organizations; Typology of organizations; Theories of organizations; Nature of organizational theory, Classical theories, Modern management theories, System Theory, Criticisms and lessons learnt/analysis; Organization Behaviour- Concepts, Scope, Importance, Models of OB. Group behaviour in organization (organizational system): Foundations of group, Group behaviour and Group dynamics, Group Development and Cohesiveness, Group Performance and Decision Making, Intergroup Relations; Teams in Organisations-Team building experiential exercises, Interpersonal Communication and Group; Leadership, Meaning, types, Theories and Perspectives on Effective Leadership, Power and Influence, Leadership styles; Motivation-Concept & Theories, Managing motivation in organizations. Organizational conflict management: Conflict Management and Negotiation skills, Problem-solving techniques; Job analysis, Job performance and Job- stress management; Occupational stress – Meaning, sources, Effects, Coping mechanism, Effects and management; Occupational stress in farming, Farmer groups/ organizations, research and Extension organizations, Organizations Structure- Need and Types, Line & staff, functional, Committee, Project structure organizations, Centralization & decentralization; Organizational Culture vs Climate; Organizational Change; Organizational Learning and Transformation. Organizational development and interventions: Organizational development- Concept and process; Meaning, Importance, Characteristics and types of Organization development, Interventions; OD consultant Types of OD consultants and their advantages, Qualifications, Comparison of traditional consultants vs. OD consultants. Management in organizations: Concept and principles of administration and management, Classical and modern theories, Schools of management thoughts, Functions of management – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Leading, Controlling, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting; Managerial skills, Concept of HRM and methods, Job satisfaction and morale; Performance appraisal – Meaning, Concept and Methods. Authority and responsibility, Delegation and decentralization, line and staff relations; Supervision – Meaning, Responsibilities, Qualities and functions of supervision, Essentials of effective supervision; Coordination at different levels of extension management, Methods of coordination. Management techniques: Management by Objectives (MBO) and Total Quality Management (TQM); Time management; Critical analysis of organizational set up of extension administration at various levels; Management Information Systems (MIS): Concept, tools and techniques, MIS in extension organizations.
Practical: Simulated exercises on techniques of decision making / problem solving; Study the structure and function of fisheries enterprises, Designing organizational structure/ organograms; Group activity on leadership development skills, Field visit to extension organizations (MANAGE, ATARI, KVKs, ATMA, NGOs, etc.), FPOs, fisheries cooperatives to understand the functions of management, Study of organizational structure of development departments, study of departmentalization, span of control, delegation of authority, decision-making patterns; Exercise on OD interventions (Interpersonal, Team, Structural, Comprehensive) with its procedure to conduct in an organization, Case studies/ success stories on performance of SHGs in fisheries, Case Analysis of organization in terms of process – attitudes and values, motivation, leadership, Study of individual and group behaviour at work in an organization; Conflicts and their management in an organization, Documenting occupational stress in farming, farmer groups/ organizations, Exercises on stress management and time management; Exercises on team building and negotiation skill development Understanding organizational change process tools and techniques, Case analysis on organizational change process; Stakeholder analysis mapping.
ICT for Development
Content: ICTs - concepts, roles and initiatives: ICTs- meaning, concepts, basics of ICTs, Global and National status, Types and functions of ICTs, Meaning of e-Governance, e-learning, m-Learning, Advantages and Limitations of ICTs. Knowledge management: Meaning, Approaches and Tools, Role of ICTs in Agricultural Knowledge Management, e-Extension, overview on Global and national e-Extension initiatives, Inventory of e-Extension initiatives in Agriculture and allied sectors from Central and State governments, ICAR, SAUs, private sector and NGOs in India. ICT applications: Knowledge centres (tele centres), CSC, Digital kiosks, Web portals, Community radio, Internet radio, Kisan call centres, Mobile based applications, INCOIS-PFZ advisories; Self-learning CDs on Package of practices, Augmented Learning, Virtual Learning, social media, Market Intelligence and Information Systems-e-NAM, Agmarknet, etc. Expert System/ Decision Support System/ Management Information Systems, Farm Health Management & Intelligence System for Plant /Animal/ Soil Health, Fishery, Water, Weather, etc., National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture (NeGP-A). Networks and policies: Global and regional knowledge networks, international information management systems, e-Learning platforms (MOOCS, Coursera, EduEx, etc.); Digital networks among extension personnel, Farmer Producers Organisations (FPOs) / SHGs/ Farmers Groups, Video conference, Live streaming and Webinars, types and functions of social media applications, Guidelines for preparing social media content, Engaging audience, Data- analytics and Info graphics. Smart technologies for extension: Open technology computing facilities, System for data analytics/ mining/ modelling/ Development of Agricultural simulations; Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS, Information Utility (AIU). Disruptive technologies for extension: Disruptive technologies Analysis; Internet of Things (IoTs), Drones, Artificial intelligence (AI), Block chain technology, Social media and Big Data analytics for extension.
Practical: Content and client engagement analysis; Case studies and exercises on ICT based interventions in fisheries and agriculture; Designing extension content for ICTs; Creating and designing web portals, blogs, social media pages; Development and use of online and offline e-learning modules in fisheries; Live streaming extension programmes and organizing webinars; Visit to KCC; Exercises on developing mobile based applications; Developing social media pages for disseminating fisheries related information; Writing for digital media; Developing video content related to fisheries; Conducting exercise on remote sensing and GIS.
Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment
Content: Introduction to monitoring: Monitoring- Definition, Objectives, Tools, Methods and Approaches; Major Components of project Monitoring; Special Diagnostic studies, Project Completion report, Project sustainability, Monitoring Standards; Past quality or performance, The quality of other systems, Desired quality, Professional standards, The quality required, Planning targets and Optimal quality. Concept of evaluation: Meaning and concept in different contexts; Why Evaluation is Done and When? Purpose of Evaluation; Principles of Evaluation; Types of Evaluation; Objective Oriented, Management Oriented; Context Evaluation, Input evaluation, Process Evaluation, Product Evaluation, Consumer oriented evaluation, Expertise Oriented Evaluation, Adversary Oriented Evaluation, Naturalistic and Principal oriented evaluation, Goal free evaluation and meta evaluation; Process of Evaluation, Evaluation at the beginning, Evaluation during the programme, Evaluation at the end; Use of evaluation findings; Statistical Tools for evaluation; Evaluation theories, Three broad categories of theories that evaluators use in their works, Programme theory, Social science theory, and Evaluation theory (other theories/ approaches - Utilization-Focused Evaluation & Utilization-Focused Evaluation (U-FE) Checklist, Values Engaged Evaluation, Empowerment Evaluation, Theory-Driven Evaluation). Programme planning: Steps, Analyse programme effectiveness, Accountability; Objectives, Types, Criteria and Approaches of programme evaluation; The context of program evaluation in agricultural extension; Competency and credibility of evaluator; Integration between theory and practice of evaluation; Evaluation forums, Workshops, Conferences and Apprenticeship / internship, Ten Steps in programme evaluation; SWOT Analysis; Bar Charts (Gantt Charts and Milestone Charts); Networks, Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM); Bennett’s Hierarchy of Evaluation; LFA. Impact assessment indicators and approaches: Meaning, Need, Features, Benefits, Concepts; Indicators for Impact Assessment, Direct indicators, Indirect or proxy indicators, Quantitative indicators, Qualitative indicators, Result chain/ hierarchy of indicators; Methods of Impact Evaluation, Learning retention of participants (KOSA), Impact on the job performance, Impact on organizational effectiveness, Impact on stakeholder’s competency. Impact assessment framework: Meaning of inputs, Outputs, Outcomes, Impacts and their relation with monitoring, Evaluation and impact assessment; Indicators for impact assessment – meaning and concept; Selecting impact indicators; Types of impact indicators for technology and Extension advisory services, Social and behavioural indicators, Socio-cultural indicators, Technology level indicators, Environmental impact assessment indicators and Institutional impact assessment indicators; SDGs, Yield-related Public participation models; Crisis management, Conventional participation, Participation in project-cycle, Concurrent participation, dedicated participation framework; Social auditing: concept, elements, steps, potential problems, benefits. Impact assessment approaches – Quantitative, Qualitative, Participatory and Mixed methods with their advantages and disadvantages; Quantitative Impact Assessment Types – Based on Time of Assessment (Ex-ante and ex-post), Based on Research Design (Experimental, quasi experimental, Non-experimental), Econometric Impact Assessment; (Partial Budgeting Technique, Net Present Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, Internal Rate of Return, Adoption Quotient etc.), Qualitative and Participatory Impact Assessment Methods, Quantitative and qualitative techniques for impact assessment, Social impact analysis; Economic impact analysis cost, Benefit analysis, Social-cost Benefit analysis, Partial budget analysis; Environmental impact analysis; Institutional impact analysis; Sustainability analysis, Human impact assessment methods.
Practical: Search the literature using web / printed resources and identify evaluation indicators for the following: Utilization-Focused Evaluation, Values Engaged Evaluation, Empowerment Evaluation, Theory-Driven Evaluation, Visit to Directorate of Extension in anuniversity and enquire about extension programmes being implemented / coordinated by Directorate, Developing an evaluation proposal of any one programme using ‘Ten Steps in Programme Evaluation’, Field studies for identification and ranking of criteria/indicators for impact assessment, Identifying a fisheries development programmes and their objectives being implemented in your state, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats related to the identified programme objectives in the SWOT grid, Visit a nearby KVKs / ATIC. Select any agriculture technology with package of practices and extension advisory services promoted by KVK / ATIC, Identifying impact assessment indicators for social and behavioural indicators, socio-cultural indicators, technology level indicators, environmental impact assessment indicators and institutional impact assessment indicators, Exercises on evaluation of fisheries development programmes using the techniques of evaluation; Exercises on CPM and PERT.
Aquapreneurship Promotion and Value Chain Development
Content: Basics of aquapreneurship and Facilitation for entrepreneurship development: Entrepreneurship - Concept, Significance and Scope, Theories and models; Entrepreneurship Development Cycle and process; Aquapreneurship – Meaning, Drivers, Characteristics, Importance, Types of entrepreneurs; Startups, Small businesses, Startups group/ community-based entrepreneurship; Entrepreneur and Manager; Approaches for assessing characteristics of entrepreneurs, Enterprising tendency, Entrepreneurship intention, Entrepreneurship orientation; Critical competencies required for entrepreneur in managing the businesses, Technical, communication, Financial, Human; Entrepreneurial university approach. Approaches for developing agricultural enterprises through extension and advisory services, Individual, Group and Community based approaches; Specific roles of extension agents in creating agricultural entrepreneurships; Pluralistic extension and extension agents working with other agents; Free and fee for extension services for business upgrading for farmers/farmer groups; Competencies of extension professionals for creating entrepreneurships. Basics of business planning, entrepreneurial ecosystem and Infrastructure requirement: Feasibility report, Business plan, Bankable project and Detailed project report – Similarities and differences; Elements of business plan, The team and its competencies, Business idea, Gaps, Opportunities and risks, Key products and services, Target market and Consumer segments, Marketing plan, Financial plan, Intellectual property and others, Meaning, Elements; Government policy support and Schemes for development of agricultural and allied enterprises (Startup India, Make in India, Digital India, Atal Innovation Mission and others; Entrepreneurship policy and schemes at different states of India); Sources of funding for agripreneurship/ aquapreneurship, Debt and equity capital, grants and subsidies, Angel investor, Venture capitalist, Bank lending, NABARD and others; Entrepreneurial culture, Mentoring and handholding incubator Infrastructure for supporting agricultural entrepreneurship – Warehouse, Cold storage and Transportation and Other support systems, Technology development system, Education and training, Human capital and workforce, Systems for assessing capacity requirement and Capacity building, Local and global markets and Regulatory framework; Policy approaches for women entrepreneurship development, Organisations promoting entrepreneurship in India; Emerging perspectives, Focus on startups and support mechanisms, Climate-smart technology businesses; Block chains for value chain management. Extension and value chain: Supply chains – Meaning, Structure, Value chains – Meaning, Importance, Types; Supply chains vs value chains; Value chain development and Value Chain extension; Steps in a value chain analysis; Three dimensions of the value chain process; Participatory tools used in a value chain analysis, Focus groups, Ranking and weighting, Historical calendars, Market mapping, Evaluation of Business development services, Market visits, Learning journeys, Semi-structured interview, Structured interviews, Direct observation; Extension toolkits and Approaches for value chain development; Value chain upgrading strategies on farmer and extension agent level.
Practical: Field visit to any entrepreneurship promotion agency of Govt. of India (e.g. Small farmer agribusiness consortium, EDI etc.); Business plan preparation and presentation – covers all aspects of choosing the business idea, financial estimates, market planning and others and presentation; Assessing the entrepreneurship potential of a prospective entrepreneur – enterprising tendency, entrepreneurship intention and entrepreneurship orientation scales administration and explain the processes Field visit to market support system – warehouse, cold storage unit, regulatory market etc. Field visit to Banks and Venture capitalist/ angel investors or other private investing agencies; Value chain mapping using participatory approaches. Field visit to successful aquapreneurs –startup, Farmer Producer Organization, SHG business, large business to orient themselves with different types of aquapreneurship; Field visit to technology business incubator.
Sociology, Psychology and Community Organisation
Content: Overview of sociology: Basic Concepts in Sociology, Society, Understanding of basic rural institutions, Social structure, Community, Social institution, Culture, Social change, Cultural change, Social system, Social process, Social conflict, Social values, Norms, Folkways, Mores, Customs; Cultural relativism, Cultural integration, Cultural lag, Acculturation; Family, Kin and Clan – its relationship with group behaviour and rural development; Social Stratification, Class and caste system, Their impact on rural development; Social Process and Social Interaction – Concepts, types; Competition, Conflict, Cooperation Accommodation and Assimilation, and change in social process due to developmental programmes, Community Organization (CO): Meaning and Models. Dynamics of change: Concept, Types and importance in rural community; Typology of change, Planned, Indoctrinational, Technocratic, Coercive, Emulative, etc. Theories of social change, Immanency, Functionalism, Economic, Technological, Historical, Ideological, Evolutionary and Field Theory; Factors affecting change under rural settings; Stimulants and Barriers to change, Social Capital, Collectivism, Interdependence in larger groups, Conformity and functional analysis of roles. Preamble to Psychology: Psychology as a science and its importance in extension education, Perception- Nature, Selectivity & Laws, Importance of perception in extension work, Sensation vs Perception; Attitudes - Meaning, Characteristics, Assumptions, Types, Theories and Models of attitude formation; Methods of changing attitudes, Stereotypes and Prejudices, Factors in attitude change, Liking / affect – meaning, Types and theories; Attraction – meaning, Types and theories; Persuasion – Meaning, theories and techniques; Social influence and groups – Conformity, Compliance and Obedience. Information processing: Meaning, Principles; Basic assumption, Models of information processing, Waugh and Norman model of primary and secondary memory; Atkinson and Shiffrin’s stage model of memory; Sensory memory- Working, Short and Long term memory, Other models including blooms taxonomy and Sternberg’s Information Processing Approach, Computer- mind analogy, Teaching- Learning process. Attention and perception: Meaning, types, Theories and models; Consciousness; Motivation, Nature, Characteristics and types of motives, Techniques of motivating farm people, Measuring motivation, TAT, Sentence completion, etc., Emotion- its nature, Types of emotional response, Theories of emotion, Self-motivation; Harnessing emotions productively, Empathy and its theories, Reading emotions, Role of emotion in regulating human behaviour, Psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms in farming situations, Personality, Individual differences and theories of personality, Multiple Intelligences- IQ, Emotional intelligence, Social intelligence, Managing emotions; Relationship between IQ and EQ, Handling relationships; Social skills, Defence mechanisms- types and importance. Cognitive processes and learning: Cognitive processes, Attention, Perception, Remembering and Forgetting, Knowledge and Expertise, Ffoundations and Theories; Principles and processes of perception; Consciousness, Meaning, Types, Sleep and Dreams; Learning and Memory, meaning, Learning, Foundations, Approaches, Styles and theories; Cognitive approaches of learning – Meaning, Principles theories and models; Memory, Foundations, types; Behavioural approaches of learning, Foundations and theories, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Applied behaviour analysis; Social cognitive and constructivist approaches to learning, Foundations and theories, Social cognitive theory, Self-regulated learning; Learning styles, Meaning, Types and applications in learning.
Practical: Learning - Classical conditioning and operant conditioning; Assessment of emotional intelligence; Exercises in problem solving; Exercises in visual perception; Measuring self-concept using psychometric tools; Experiment on factors influencing information processing; Assessment of attitudes; Visit to a village to study rural institutions; Focus group discussions to identify stimulants and barriers to changes existing in rural community; Understanding perception - Attentional Blink and Repetition Blindness exercise; Understanding attention -Testing selective attention capacity and skills and processing speed ability through Stroop test; Hands-on experience in the techniques for assessing creative thinking – divergent and convergent thinking; Assessing learning styles through Barsch and Kolb inventories; Practical experience in building self-esteem; Hands on experience in methods of persuasion; Field experience in assessing social judgement; Simulation exercise to understand decision-making under different situations; Exercise in rational decision-making.
Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation
Content: Understanding risk and distress: Introduction to risk, Risk management, Uncertainty, Sensitivity and Distress, General risk theory, Risk analysis methods, Risk perception and decision making, Indicators of risk and distress in agriculture, Identification, Selection and Assessment, Understanding the agrarian distress in Indian agriculture, Sources of distress in Indian farming, Changing farm size, Land use, Cropping patterns, Pricing policy, Markets and terms of trade, Typology of crisis in agriculture; Droughts, Floods and Indian agriculture, Distress and farmer suicides, Causes and socio-economic consequences. Managing risk and distress: Ways to reducing/managing risk and distress in Indian agriculture/fisheries; Crop and life insurance; Developing support systems; Planning, Implementation and evaluation of risk/distress management programs; Institutional frameworks for risk and disaster management – NDMA & SDMAs; Developing District Agriculture Contingency Plans; Risk management by diversification; Good practices and lessons from other countries; Responses of government, Non-government and extension system to agrarian crisis; National Farmers Policy. Extension professionals and risk management: Understanding social- Psychological and behavioural dimensions of farmers under risk/distress; Risk perception and communication; Helping farmers manage farm level risks, Mobilising resources, Linking with markets, Strengthening capacities; Working with village level risk management committees; Operational skills for preparing contingency and disaster management plans; Institutional and extension innovations in managing risk and distress; Policy and technological preferences for dealing with drought and flood. Introduction to climate change science: Basic concepts of and terms in climate change science; Impacts of climate change; Anthropogenic drivers of climate change, Climate change and Indian agriculture; Climate adaptation vs. Disaster risk reduction; Anticipated costs of adaptation; Climate change and poor; Overview of UNFCCC framework and institutions, Kyoto Protocol and beyond; India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change and National Mission on Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change; National Coastal Mission, Institutional arrangements for managing climate change agenda. Introduction to climate change adaptation and mitigation: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation, Conducting a vulnerability assessment (CVI and SEVI frameworks), Identifying and selecting adaptation options; Global, national and state level initiatives and plans to support climate change adaptation, Private sector and civil society initiatives and activities; Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development planning, Financing climate adaptation and budgetary allocations for programmes, Gender and climate change adaptation, Agricultural development programmes and strategies towards climate change adaptation and mitigation, Community based and Ecosystem based adaptation strategies, Preparing evidence based intervention plans for vulnerability reduction at micro and macrolevels. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) and extension & advisory services: Climate smart agriculture; Developing climate smart and climate resilient villages; Stakeholders and determinants involved in climate smart agriculture; Climate smart agriculture and EAS; Innovative extension approaches used in CSA; Climate information services, Farmers perceptions about climate change; Farm and household level manifestations and adaptation strategies; Barriers and limits to adaptation; Farmers feedback on performance of extension methods; Skills, competencies and tools required for extension professionals at different levels and development departments in up scaling CSA.
Practical: Hands-on practice in using risk assessment/analysis tools; Case studies on risk / distress assessment in agriculture -Indian and global lessons / Experiences from NICRA Project in agriculture and allied sectors; Developing criteria, indicators and indices for assessment of risk, vulnerability and resilience; Hands on practice on use of vulnerability and risk assessment tools and techniques; Case studies on success stories of climate change adaptation and community based initiatives; Developing district and village level intervention plans for climate change adaptation; Field Visits to State Disaster Management Authority; Case studies on climate smart agriculture / villages from India and world; Case studies on impact assessment of crop insurance programs, disaster management programs; Capstone project on documenting ITKs and local practices related to reducing risk / climate resilience agriculture.
Content: Capacity development- an overview: Training, Capacity building, Capacity development and HRD, Meaning and differences; Training principles and Phases of training; Need and principles of Capacity development; Types and levels of capacities, Institutional capacities (include the rules, regulations and practices that set the overarching contextual environment), Organizational capacities (how various actors come together to perform given tasks), Individual capacities (technical, functional and leadership skills) Capacity building: Types of capacity building, Based on structure (structured, semi-structured & unstructured), Based on context (orientation, induction and refresher), and other categories (online, Webinar, distance etc.); Components of capacity development; Capacity development cycle; Approaches in Capacity Development, Informative approach, Participatory approach, Experimental approach/ Experiential, Performance based approach Steps in Designing and Planning of Capacity Development- Step 1. Select the participants, Step 2. Determine the participants’ needs, Step 3. Formulate goal and objectives, Step 4. Outline the content, Step 5. Develop instructional activities, Step 6. Prepare the design, Step 7. Prepare evaluation form, Step 8. Determine follow-up activities; Evaluation of training: types and techniques of training evaluation Capacity assessment and development methods: Concept of Need Assessment; Approaches in Need Analysis- Performance Analysis, Task Analysis, Competency Study; Needs Survey; Data Collection Methods in Identifying Needs, Rational Methods (Observation, Informal talks, Complaints, Comparison, Analysis of report, Opinion poll, Buzz session, Analysis of the new programme), Empirical Methods (Job analysis, Performance evaluation, Checklist or Questionnaire Method, Tests, Critical Incident Technique, Card Sort Method, Focus Group Discussion, Interview, SWOT Analysis); Information and Skills required in Need Analysis; Identification of Needs through Task Analysis, Task identification, Task Analysis, Gap Analysis. Capacity development methods: Lecture, Discussion, Syndicate, Seminars, Conference, Symposium, Role Play, Case study, Programmed Instruction, T - group/ Laboratory methods, Brain storming; Delphi technique, Johari window; Factors Determining Selection of Methods, Capacity development objectives, Subject matter, Categories of participants, and the available resources like time, Location, Budget; Capacity Development Aids; Capacity Developer (Trainer), Meaning and concept; Types of Capacity Developers (regular, ad-hoc, part time, guest and consultants); Roles of Capacity Developer (explainer, clarifier, supporter, confronter, role model, linker, motivator, translator/interpreter, change agent); Good Capacity Developer, Qualities, Skills and Roles. Human resource development; Meaning, Importance and Benefits; Types of HRD Systems & Sub-systems, Career system; Components of HRD System, Performance Appraisal, Potential Appraisal, Task System, Development System, Socialisation System, Governance; Functions of HRD Organisational Development, Career Development, Capacity Development.
Practical: Capacity development needs assessment exercise; Planning organizing and conducting an extension capacity development programme; Designing a programme; Writing learning objectives; Developing objectives into curriculum; Training plan; Organizing capacity development workshop; Evaluation with pre & post training tests; Exercise on business games, simulation exercises, in-basket exercise; Activities on programmed instruction, experiential learning techniques; Exercises on Transactional analysis and Fish bowl Technique; Preparing questionnaires using Delphi technique; Conducting brain storming and buzz sessions on topics related to fisheries; Organizing FGDs in fishing villages/institutions; Conducting SWOT analysis of any institutions or any fisheries technologies; Preparation of checklist/ questionnaires on capacity development related to fisheries department officers / fish farmers; Role plays on fisheries related problems; Conducting exercises on need assessment; Practicing facilitation techniques; Self-discovery exercises.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (FPB) (M.F.Sc.)
Content: Cell Physiology: Structures, Membranes, Organelles and Functions; Cell cycle; Signaling and cell death; Cellular functions in aquatic environment; Extracellular matrix biology; Bioluminescence and physiology of electric organs in fishes. Physiology of GIT: Anatomy; Digestion, Absorption and assimilation of food salt and water; Digestive enzymes, Neural and hormonal regulation; Impact of nutrition. Physiology of respiration: Morphology of gills, Respiratory pigments and their functions; Mechanism of gaseous exchange, Gill ventilation countercurrent principle, CO2 transport,; Fluid dynamics on gill functions and respiratory mechanisms. Circulatory system: Structure and functions of heart, Blood circulation, Blood pressure, Composition of blood, Heart and cardiac output, Structure of blood/ haemolymph pigments; Water salinity and blood composition. Physiology of Osmoregulation and Respiration: Excretory and osmoregulatory organs in fish and shellfish and their functions; Mechanism of osmotic and ionic regulation; Acid base regulation, Mechanism of excretion of nitrogenous waste; mechanisms of osmoregulation against aquatic pollutants.Physiology of Reproduction: Structure and functions of gonads, Gametogenesis; Vitellogenesis; Gonadal steriodogenesis; Seasonality of reproduction, and endocrine control of reproduction; Circadian rthyme in fish physiology; Aquatic pollutants and reproduction.
Practical: Cell proliferation assay: Estimation of haemoglobin /haemocyanin and blood CBC; Estimation of ion transporter activity; Measuring osmolality of blood/ haemolymph; dissection and display of reproductive system, Estimation of hormones.
Reproductive Physiology And Endocrinology
Content: Modes of reproduction: Sex determination and differentiation; Sexual dimorphism; Primary and secondary sex characters; Bisexual reproduction; Hermaphroditism, Sex reversal; Parental care reproductive behavior and adaptations. Neuroendocrine regulation: Pituitary gland and hypophthalamus; Structure and functions of GnRH other neuropeptides, Gonadotropins; Gonadotropin receptors structure, Function and regulation of their secretion. Gonad development and maturation: Oocyte and spermatocyte growth, Vitellogenesis; Nutrient transport and incorporation into oocytes; Oocyte maturation and ovulation; Spermiation; Metabolic changes during gametogenesis; Nutrient regulation of gonad development and endocrine function; Seminal vesicle and function. Reproductive Rhythm: Daily and seasonal rhythms; Environmental cues, Phototransduction, Role of melatonin and neuropeptides, Lunar clock, Biological Clock, Time of day, reproduction; Pheromones; Migration in fish. Reproductive technology: Hormonal manipulation of reproduction; Cryopreservation of gametes/ germ cells; Artificial insemination, Synthetic hormones and analogues for induced spawning; Stripping and fertilization. Peripheral endocrine glands and hormones: Structure and functions; Thyroid, ultimobranchial body, Corpuscles of Stannius, Adrenal homologues, and Urophysis, PTH-related peptides, Calcitriol, Pancreatic hormones; Gut hormones; Neuroendocrine hormones.
Practical: Dissection and display of reproductive and endocrine organs. Assay of hormonestestosterone, estradiol, cortisol, thyroxine; histological examination of gonad, maturity; Short term preservation of milt; Cellular morphology of pituitary gland.
Metabolism of Biomolecules
Content: Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Feeder pathways of carbohydrate metabolism: Pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis; Glycogen metabolism, Regulation of blood glucose level. Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis of fatty acids; Oxidation of fatty acids; Ketone bodies; desaturation and Elongation mechanisms; Control of fatty acid metabolism. Oxidative phosphorylation: Substrate level phosphorylation; Electron Transport Chain; NADH, NADPH, and FADH2. Fo-F1 ATP synthesis. Protein and amino acid metabolism: Biosynthesis of protein; Degradation of amino acids; Transamination and deamination, ammonia carrier and excretion; Biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids. Nucleic acids metabolism: Purine and pyrimidine metabolism, Biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides. Vitamins and mineral metabolism: Metabolomics; Basic concepts and applications, Xenobiotic metabolism.
Practical: End product estimation of aerobic and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate and lactate) Estimation of lipoprotein lipase, acetyl choline esterase LDH, MDH, AST, ALT, NADH, NADPH, RNAses and DNAses.
Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Content: Cell structure: General organization of euaryotic and prokaryotic cell; Structure and function of cell organelles, Cell membrane, Compartments, Electrolytes and Extracellular matrix, Membrane fluidity. Cell cycle and division: Meiosis and Mitosis regulation of cell cycle factors affecting cell cycle; Apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Cell signaling: General principles; Second messenger system; Concept of ligand; Ligand and receptor interactions Mechanism of cell signaling, Intracellular and extracellular receptors (Ion channel linked, G-Protein linked and enzyme linked) mediated signaling pathways; GPCR structures and functions; Concepts of membrane bound receptors and cytoplasmic/ nuclear receptor; second messenger system; Steroid hormone actions. Cellular trafficking: Endocytic and Exocytic pathways membrane transport protein sorting vesicular transport. Gene expression: DNA replication, transcription translation and regulation of gene expression. Translation and epigenesist: Pre and Post transcriptional and post translational modifications; Gene splicing, duplication and mutation, DNA damage and repair, Pathways; Epigenetic regulations.
Practical: RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, PCR, Genomic DNA isolation, PAGE and SDSPAGE, DNA barcoding.
Content: Reproduction: Reproductive physiology of crustaceans, Neuroendocrine glands and their functions. Molting and growth: Physiology of Molting, molting cycle, Growth. Ion and metabolites homeostasis: Osmoregulatory and Excretory physiology of crusataceans. Digestive physiology: Function and structure of different components of digestive system, Feeding and sensory appendages, Hepatopancreas, Chemoreception.
Practical: Identification of different organs, morphology of gonads; Molting cycle in relation to environment; osmolality and ionic estimation of haemolymph, anatomy of digestive tract.
Tools and Techniques in Biochemistry
Content: Theory and application of spectrophotometry: Beer-Lambert’s law; Calibration plot; UV-visual, fluorescent, IR, CD spectroscopy, Atomic mass spectroscopy, RTPCR and NMR, X-ray crystallography. Basic principles of chromatography: Theory and applications of paper, Affinity, Column, Thin layer, Ion-exchange, Size exclusion and gas chromatography, HPLC; HP-TLC; LC-MS; Factors affecting chromatographic resolutions, Resolving power and retention time. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): Basic principle and application in quantitative estimation of biological analytes; Development of assays. Electrophoresis: Theory and applications of electrophoresis; Gel electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids, Determination of molecular weight of proteins and nucleic acids; Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA).
Practical: Spectrophotometric estimation of biomolecules: Spectrum analysis, Validation of Beer-Lamberts law IR spectroscopy FTIR, NMR Isolation and purification of protein; protein isolates and concentrate preparation, chromatographic purification of proteins, Separation of amino acids by paper chromatography; TLC separation; HPLC analysis GC-MS analysis; Qualitative and quantitative estimation of fatty acids by gas chromatography; Isolation of plasmid and genomic DNA, Total RNA, PCR, RT-PCR and qPCR, Separation of proteins and nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis: Vertical and horizontal electrophoresis. RIA and ELISA.
Content: Blood analysis: Analytes in blood, Tissues, Invasive and non-invasive techniques of blood drawing in fish, Their limitations and interpretation, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Plasma proteins, Glucose tolerance test. Enzymes and metabolic disorders: Subcellular distribution of enzymes, Isolation and purification of enzymes, General properties, Enzyme activity, Marker enzymes, Metabolic disorders related to carbohydrate, Lipid, Protein and nucleic acid metabolism in fishes. Enzyme markers: Enzymes and iso-enzymes of clinical significance; Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Amylase, angiotensin converting enzyme, Cholinesterase, Creatine phosphokinase, Gammaglutamyl transferase, Lactate dehydrogenase. Vitamins and minerals: Vitamins and Minerals sub-clinical and clinical deficiencies, Electrolytes and acid-base balance, Regulation of electrolyte content of body fluids, Biochemical indicators for vitamin and mineral stress. Lipids carriers and disorders: Chylomicrons, VLDL and IDL, HDL, LDL - Implications in disease, Fatty liver, liver, kidney and bone disorders, Liver function tests, Detoxification mechanisms of gill, liver and kidney, Pesticide poisoning. Immunoglobulins: Structure, Classes, Properties and functional significance of Immunoglobulins, Monoclonal antibodies.
Practical: Estimation of blood glucose, albumin and globulin, gel electrophoresis of serum proteins, quantification of serum proteins, determination of A/G ratio in serum, Analysis of stress proteins; Liver and plasma enzyme assay (GOT, GPT, ALP, AchE, CPK, LDH, Urease); Blood hemoglobin, serum bilirubin, Blood calcium. Histology of vital organs. Estimation of vitamin A and D. Tests for immunoglobulins.
Principles of Fish Nutrition
Content: Protein nutrition: Protein and amino acids, Their specific functions, Classification and evaluation criteria of dietary protein (nutrient gain, nutrient efficiency, TGC, PER, NPU, BV, EAAI, chemical score), Protein deficiency symptoms. Lipid nutrition: Lipids and fatty acids, Their specific functions, Classification and evaluation of lipid quality, Lipid deficiency symptoms. Carbohydrate nutrition: Carbohydrates, Functions, Classification and Utilization of carbohydrate in fish diets. Vitamin and mineral nutrition: Specific functions, Classification, Sources of vitamins and minerals and their deficiency symptoms. Nutritional energetics: Definition, Different forms of energy and energy value of feed (gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy), Importance of protein-energy ratio in fish diets. Larval and Brood stock nutrition: Larval gut morphology, Importance of live feed and formulated feeds in larval nutrition, Nutrients required for egg and sperm quality and reproductive efficiency.
Practical: Proximate analysis; moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, gross energy, ash, acid insoluble ash, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract of feed and fish tissue, analysis of fatty acids and amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin C content of feed.
Nutraceuticals as Functional Foods
Content: Functional foods v/s Nutraceuticals: Definitions, Concepts and Beneficial roles, Application of functional foods in immune modulation and disease prevention. Characteristics of nutraceuticals and delivery systems: Nanotechnology of drug delivery system such as biocompatible polymers, Stimuli responsive polymers. Modes of action and benefits: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Stanols and sterols, Their immunomodulatory effects. Stress mitigation and growth enhancement: Interrelationships of stress and growth in fish, Functional feed additives and role of functional foods in stress mitigation and growth enhancement.
Practical: Estimation of immunomodulatory parameters (lysozyme, NBT, MPO, antibody titre), estimation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx), extraction of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant assay, Pro PO.
Fish Pathology and Immunobiology
Content: Basic principles of immune system: Immune system in fishes, Cell and organ involved in immunity. Mechanism of immunity: Different mechanisms, Humoral and cell mediated immunity, Cytokines, Interferon, Lymphokine, Chemokines, Their role in immune response. Immunoprophylaxis: Immunoprophylaxis in fish, Toxin, Toxoid and Vaccines, Immuno-stimulant and immunomodulation. Antibodies and their function: Biosynthesis of antibody, Function of different antibodies; Interaction of Endocrine with immune system; antibody classes and genes involved.
Practical: Challenge study, Lysozyme activity, Estimation of NBT and MPO Estimation of CBC. Estimation of prophenol oxidase, Estimation of superoxide dismutase, Estimation of IgM.
Content: Sense organs and their functions: Electroreceptors, Chemoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Propioreceptors, Hydroreceptors and Photoreceptors. Olfactory and auditory organs: Physiological mechanisms; Fisheries acoustics. Sensory neurons: Action potential, Synapse, Neurotransmitters, Impulse transmission, Excitation-contraction coupling. Luminescence: Chemoluminescence and bioluminescence; Chromatophores; electrophysiology.
Practical: Practical on chemoreception using different feeding attractants. Study of chemosensor cell function in response to salinity, dissolved oxygen levels and pH changes Chromatophores function in relation to background colour light, temperature, etc.
Physiology of Fish Behaviour
Content: Fish behavior: Concept, types, and regulatory mechanism. Feeding and predation: Predatory avoidance; Feeding behavior. Social and reproductive behavior: Sexual and aggressive behavior; Parental behavior; Endocrine control of behaviours. Adaptation mechanism in altered environment: Migration, Schooling, Shoaling, bottom dwelling.
Practical: Tagging studies, Audio visual recording of behavior in simulated experiment.
Pharmaco-biology of Aquaculture Drugs
Content: Drugs in aquaculture and fish health management: E.O., FDA and ISO standards of levels of drugs. Pharmacological studies: Kinetics and dynamics; Detoxification; Drug metabolic profile; Liver function tests. Chemotherapeutic agents: Antiprotozoal agents, Ectoparasiticide, Antihelmenthic, Anaesthetics; Dosage determination/ optimization. Antimicrobial drugs: Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral drugs and their delivery system.
Practical: Estimation of residual level of different drugs; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of drugs test, Pharamaco-kinetics of aquaculture drugs.
Ecophysiology of Fishes
Content: Fish habitats: Disruption of habitats; Pollutants, Toxicants and Radionuclides Emittants. Climate change effectors: Impacts on ecology, Growth and reproduction; Mitigation mechanisms; Migration patterns. Thermal and hypoxic stress: Physiological and metabolic responses; Heat shock protein (HSP); Hypoxia Inducing Factor (HIF); cardiovascular and gill ventillatory systems. Radioecology: Occurrence of radioactive substances in water and threat on food chain, Use of radioisotopes in tracer techniques for metabolic studies, International radiological limits for the export and import of aquatic products; Radioactive substances and fish physiology.
Practical: Estimate threshold of thermal and hypoxia tolerance, Estimation of LC 50 of pollutants, Estimation of stress enzymes, isozymes, Estimation of cortisol. Use of isotopes in tracer techniques for metabolic studies, Quantification of Tritium and other radioisotope levels in fish tissues.
Content: Enzymes: Introduction; enzyme specificity; Mode of action; Nomenclature, Classification and EC numbering; Structure of enzymes, active site. Enzyme kinetics and equilibrium: Kinetics; Enzyme equilibrium; Single substrate enzyme kinetics and factors affecting the rates of enzyme catalyzed reactions; Michaelis- Menten equation; Km and Vmax values; Enzyme efficiency; Line weaver and Burke Plots; Multi-substrate enzyme kinetics. Enzyme inhibition: Reversible and non-reversible, Competitive, Uncompetitive and Non-competitive inhibition; Enzyme poisoning. Enzyme regulation: Allosteric enzymes; Factors affecting enzyme activity, Holoenzyme and coenzyme, Zymogens, Isoenzymes, Ribozymes; Immobilized and restriction enzymes. Role of vitamins in enzyme reactions: Structure and biological function of coenzyme A, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Pyridoxal phosphate, NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD, Lipoic acid and vitamin B12; Mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by above
cofenzymes. Role of elements in enzyme reactions: Copper enzymes, Superoxide dismutase, Cytochrome oxidase Coenzymes; Molybdenum enzymes: Xanthine oxidase; Zinc enzymes: Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxy peptidase and Interchangeability of zinc and Cobalt in enzymes; Vitamin B12 and B12 coenzymes.
Practical: Enzyme extraction and purification, specific activity, enzyme substrate reactions, mode of enzyme kinetics, assay of enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, amylase, LDH, MDH, G6PD).
Content: Functional Genomics: Comparative nutrigenomics to understand the metabolic diversity; Nutritional biochemistry and Climate change. Nutritionally important genes: Genes regulation by protein lipid, Carbohydrates, Genes in fatty acid synthesis, Desaturases, Elongases, Genetic control of metabolic pathways. Omic Studies: Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics. Epigenesis: Methylation, Acetylation and Farnesylation, Nutrigenetics, Histone modifications. Techniques used in omic studies: RT PCR, cDNA synthesis, Realtime PCR, Gene cloning and Restriction digestion. Basic bioinformatics tools: Primer designing, Softwares, Data mining and NGS data analysis. Full genome sequencing of fishes
Practical: Short term nutrigenomics experiment for gene expression study; glycolytic enzymes expressions in fish liver; studies on fatty acid synthesis; Desaturases and elongases expressions.
Feeds and Feed Technology
Content: Feed formulation: General principles and criterions, Different methods of feed formulation; Pearson’s square method and least cost formulation (quadratic equation, solver function, graphic solution, Linear programming and software assisted formulations), Limitations of formulation methods. Types of feed: Wet, Moist and Dry (pellets – steam compressed, extruded and crumbled, flakes, powdered/ mash, micro-encapsulated, micro-bound and microcoated diets), Farm made feeds, experimental diets; Reference diet, purified and semi-purified diet, Compact pellet, Floating and slow sinking pellet feeds; Starter, grower, Finisher and Broodstock feeds, High energy eco-friendly and medicated feed. Feed processing technology: Receiving of raw materials, Equipments used in feed manufacture and processing; Grinder/pulverizer, mixer, Pelletizer/extruder, Crumbler, drier, Vacuum coater/ fat sprayer, Automatic bagging and sealing, Role of pre-conditioning in feed preparation, Effects of processing on the nutritional value and availability of nutrients. Feed storage: Hydro-stability of feed and their storage; Prevention of spoilag from rancidity, Fungus and associated toxins; Vectors of fish disease in feed and quality control; Nutritional value in relation to feed storage. Feed additives and supplements: Binders, carotenoids, Attractants, Antioxidants, probiotics, Prebiotics, Synbiotics, Immunostimulants, Nutraceuticals, Acidifiers and preservatives, Bile acids, Herbal additives and Vitamins, minerals, Limiting amino acids, Essential fatty acids, Phospholipids, and cholesterol. Quality control in fish feed manufacturing: Quality control procedures, Raw materials, Finished products; Safety of farm fish products, Harmful residues (pesticides, antibiotics, and pollutants), Geometrical, and physical feature; Mechanical characteristics in air, Behavioural characteristics in water, Feed economics and evaluation.
Practical: Feed formulation: Preparation of mineral and vitamin premix. Feed additives, binders, water stability test, and available lysine. Determination of feed particle size. Development of feed dispensers both for laboratory and pond feeding as part of project assignment. Visit to feed processing industries.
Nutritional Requirement and Feeding Management
Content: Nutritional requirements of finfish and shell fish: Nutritional requirements of larvae, Growout and Broodstock of commercially important finfish and shellfish, –Methods of studying nutritional requirements; Qualitative and quantitative methods; Nutrients deficiency symptoms. Nutritive value of live food: Algae, Artemia, Cladocerans, Ostracods, Rotifers and Copepods, Bio enrichment of artemia and zooplankton, Experimental diets; Reference diet, Purified and semi-purified diet. Response indices for nutrient requirement studies: Weight gain, Specific growth rate (SGR)/ Daily growth coefficient (DGC), Thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Utilization (NPU), Physiometabolic parameters, Dose response curves, Gonadosomatic Index (GSI). Body composition of fish and shellfish: Influence of nutrients on body composition and flesh quality; Effect of rations on fecundity and egg quality. Feeding methods and devices: Broadcasting, bag feeding, tray feeding, Raft feeding, Demand feeder, Mechanical automatic feeder, Blower feeder, Check tray feed monitoring, Ration size/ feeding rate and feeding frequency, Restricted feeding and mixed feeding. Feeding management: Application of research findings to farming situations, Record keeping, growth prediction and feeding management.
Practical: Determination of feed intake in fry and fingerlings; Determination of nutrient requirements of fish/prawn using purified diet; Analysis of experimental data from growth study; Measures of protein quality (PER, NPU, BV); Exercise on feeding.