M Tech. Ag- Engineering
Farm Machinery and Power Engineering
- Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction
- Testing and Evaluation of Agricultural Equipment
- Ergonomics and Safety in Farm Operations
- Design of Tractor systems
- Design of Farm Machinery-I
- Design of Farm Machinery-II
- Management of Farm Power and Machinery System
- Principles of Automation and Control
- Principles of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
- Applied Instrumentation in Farm Machinery
- Systems Simulation and Computer Aided Problem Solving in Engineering
- Computer Aided Design of Machinery
- Advance Manufacturing Technologies
- Machinery for Precision Agriculture
- Machinery for Horticulture and Protected Agriculture
- Engineering Properties of Biological Materials
- Mechatronics and Robotics in Agriculture
- Vibrations 2+1 ME-507 Fatigue Design
- Computer Aided Design
- Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies
- Agro Energy Audit and Management
- Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
- Experimental Stress Analysis
- Finite Element Methods
- Numerical Methods for Engineers
- Big Data Analytics
- Artificial Intelligence
- Database Management System
Processing and Food Engineering
- Transport Phenomena in Food Processing
- Unit Operations in Food Process Engineering
- Field Crops Process Engineering
- Horticultural Crops Process Engineering
- Storage Engineering and Handling of Agricultural Produce
- Food Package Engineering
- Instrumentation and Sensors in Food Processing
- Application of Engineering Properties in Food Processing
- Food Quality and Safety
- Food Processing Technologies
- Food Processing Equipment and Plant Design
- Seed Process Engineering
- Agri-Project Planning and Management
- Farm Structures and Environmental Control
- Dairy Product Processing
- Processing of Meat, Poultry and Fish
- Design of Aquacultural Structures
- Thermal Environmental Engineering for Agricultural Processing
- Mechatronics and Robotics in Agriculture
- Refrigeration Systems
- Energy, Ecology and Environment
- Energy Management in Food Processing Industries
- Testing and Evaluation of Agricultural Equipment
- System Simulation and Computer Aided Problem Solving in Engineering
- Agricultural Engineering: Processing and Food Engineering
- Computer Aided Design of Machinery
- Big Data Analytics 2+0 CSE 502 Artificial Intelligence
- Finite Elements Method
- Numerical Methods for Engineers
- Numerical Methods for Engineers
Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
- Design of Surface Irrigation Systems
- Design of Farm Drainage Systems
- Command Area Management
- Water and Nutrient Management Under Protected
- Design of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
- Ground Water Engineering
- Remote Sensing and GIS for Land and Water Resource Management
- Waste Water Management and Utilization in Agriculture
- Water Conveyance and Distribution
- Minor Irrigation
- Design of Pumps for Irrigation and Drainage
- Crop Environmental Engineering
- Water Resources Systems Engineering
- Irrigation Economics, Planning and Management
- Sensing and Automation in Irrigation Systems
Renewable Energy Engineering
- Renewable Energy Technologies
- Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Technologies
- Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies
- Energy Auditing, Conservation and Management
- Wind Energy Conversion and Utilization
- Solar Photovoltaic System Design and Analysis
- Renewable Energy Policy, Planning and Economics
- Alternate Fuels and Applications
- Biogas Technology and Mechanism
- Energy, Ecology and Environment
- Design and Analysis of Renewable Energy Conversion Systems
- Energy Generation from Agricultural Waste and Byproducts
- Agro Energy Audit and Management
- Green House Energetic and Passive Architecture
- Energy Management in Food Processing Industries
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
- Advanced Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
- Applied Watershed Hydrology
- Soil and Water Conservation Structures
- Stochastic Hydrology
- Watershed Management and Modeling
- Flow Through Porous Media
- Remote Sensing and GIS for Land and Water Resource Management
- Climate Change and Water Resources
- Numerical Methods in Hydrology
- Dryland Water Management Technologies
- Design of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
- Groundwater Engineering
- Minor Irrigation
- Water Resources Systems Engineering
- Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
- Water Quality and Pollution Control
- Machinery for Precision Agriculture
- Energy, Ecology and Environment
- Big Data Analytics
- Artificial Intelligence
- Soft Computing Techniques in Engineering
- Finite Element Methods
- Numerical Methods for Engineers
- Mechatronics and Robotics in Agriculture
Farm Machinery and Power Engineering
Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction
Content: Characterization of state of stress in a point: Derivation, representation by Mohr’s Circle. Coulomb’s law of friction and cohesion. Measurement of soil resistance properties: Direct shear box, torsion shear apparatus, tri-axial apparatus. Soil behaviour considerations: Soil water pressure and movement. Critical state soil mechanics: Soil stress-strain behaviour, shear rate effects. Soil cutting forces: The universal earthmoving equation, two dimensional cases, smooth vertical blade, smooth and rough raked blades in cohesive soil, unconstrained tool to soil adhesion. The shape of failure surfaces. Hettiaratchi’s calculations, effect of soil weight. Soil cutting force by method of trial wedges. Extension of theory to three dimension: Hettiaratchi, Reece-Godwin and Spoor. Three dimensional wedges: McKyes and Ali, Grisso models. Dynamic effect: Inertial forces, change in soil strength. Concept of critical depth. Complex tool shapes: Curved tools-shank and foot tools-mould board plough. Soil Loosening and manipulation: Measurement of soil loosening and its efficiency. Draft force efficiency: Loosening and pulverization efficiency. Soil mixing and inversion: Soil properties, tool shape, tool speed and tool spacing. Traction devices: Tyres, type, size, selection mechanics of traction devices. Maximum traction force: Soil deformation and slip, estimation of contact areas. Sinkage in soil: Rolling resistance, Bekker’s formulae, McKyes formulae. Soil compaction by agricultural vehicles and machines.
Practical: Measurements of soil shear strength by in-situ shear box apparatus and soil friction by friction plate. Measuring cone penetrometer resistance and working out tractive coefficients for tyres. Measurement of in-situ shear strength of soil by torsional vane shear apparatus. Solving problems on stress in soil. Solving problems on soil properties. Solving problems of tool forces. Problems on tillage tool forces, wheel slippage, tyre deflection, design and performance of traction devices.
Testing and Evaluation of Agriculture Equipment
Content: Importance and significance of testing and types of testing. Test equipment, usage and limitations. Test procedures and various test codes: National and International. Laboratory and field testing of tillage and sowing machinery: Sub-soiler, laser land leveler, mould board Plough, disc plough, rotavator, cultivator, disc harrow, seed cum fertilizer drill and planter. Laboratory and field testing of manual and power operated intercultural machinery and plant protection machine. Laboratory and field testing of reaper, thresher and chaff cutter. Laboratory and field testing of straw combine and combine harvester. Review and interpretation of test reports. Importance and need of standardization of components of agricultural equipment.
Practical: Laboratory and field testing of selected farm equipment: Tillage, sowing and planting. Material testing of critical components. Accelerated testing of fast wearing components.
Ergonomics and Safety in Farm Operations
Content: Description of human-machine systems. Ergonomics and its areas of application in the work system. History of ergonomics. Modern ergonomics. Anthropometry: Its role in daily life, principles in workspace and equipment design, design of manual handling tasks and application in equipment design. Human postures: Postural stress and its role in design of farm machinery. Human factors in tractor seat design: Entry system, controls, shape, colour coding, dial and indicators. Modern technology for comfort in driving places. Physiological parameters: Psychological and mental stresses and their measurement techniques. Human energy expenditure: Calibration of subjects, human workload and its assessment. Safety considerations and operators protective gadgets in farm operations. Standards/codes for tractors and agricultural machinery safety.
Practical: Identifying role of ergonomics in our daily life. Measurement of anthropometric dimensions of agricultural workers and establishing relationship between them. Determination of human requirements for field operation with manually operated equipment. Assessment of psychological/general load for specific agricultural operations. Calibration of human subject on bicycle ergometer and/ or treadmill for its energy output and physiological parameters like heart rate, oxygen consumption rate under laboratory conditions. Case studies of agricultural accidents and safety measure.
Design of Tractor Systems
Content: Design and types, research, development, design procedure, technical specificationsof tractors, modern trends in tractor design and development, special design features of tractors in relation to Indian agriculture. Engine related terminology. Selection of stroke-bore ratio. Design of engine components; Piston, connecting rod, cylinder, cylinder head, crank shaft etc. Design of tractor systems like clutch, gearbox, steering, steering geometry, turning force, hydraulic system & hitching, chassis, operator’s seat, work-place area and controls. Tire selection, aspect ratio etc. Mechanics of tractor stability. Computer aided design and its application in farm tractors.
Practical: Engine design calculations, transmission component design calculations. Extensive practices on the computer aided design packages.
Design of Farm Machinery-I
Content: Farm machinery design: Modern trends, tasks and requirements, economic considerations of durability, reliability and rigidity. Physico-mechanical properties of soils. Technological process of ploughing. Wedge. Working process of mould board plough, determination of basic parameters. Design of coulters, shares, mould boards. Constructing of mould board working surface. Design of landside, frog, jointer. Forces acting on plough bottom and their effect on plough balance: Trailed, semi mounted and mounted plough. Draft on ploughs, resistance during ploughing. Design disk ploughs: Concave disk working tools, forces acting. Machines and implements for surface and inter row tillage; Peg toothed harrow, disk harrows, rotary hoes, graders, rollers, cultivators. Design of V shaped sweeps. Rigidity of working tools. Rotary machines: Trajectory of motion of rotary tiller tynes, forces acting, power requirement. Machines with working tools executing an oscillatory motion. Methods of sowing and planting: Machines, agronomic specifications. Sowing intertilled crop. Grain hoppers: Seed metering mechanism, furrow openers and seed tubes. Machines for fertilizer application: Discs type broadcasters. Organic fertilizer application: Properties of organic manure, spreading machines. Liquid fertilizer distributors. Planting and transplanting: Paddy transplanters, potato planters.
Practical: Design of mould board working surface; Coulter, frog, share, jointer, mould board plough. Trailed, semi mounted and mounted ploughs. Design of disc plough, disc harrow, peg tooth harrow, cultivators, sweeps. Design of rotary tiller. Design of traction and transport devices. Design of seed drills; Metering mechanism, hopper, furrow opener. Fertilizer spreader, liquid fertilizer applicators and design of its sub systems. Design of paddy transplanters and potato planters.
Design of Farm Machinery-II
Content: Pesticide calculation examples. Multidisciplinary nature of pesticide application. Overview of chemical control integrated pest management. Targets for pesticide deposition. Formulation of pesticides. Spray droplets. Hydraulic nozzles. Power operated hydraulic sprayer design principles. Air assisted hydraulic sprayer design principles. Controlled droplet application. Electrostatically charged sprayers. Spray drift and its mitigation. Aerial spraying systems. Use of drones for spraying: Design of spray generation and application issues. Introduction to combine harvesters: Construction, equipment subsystems, power sub systems. Crop harvesting: Plant properties, physical and mechanical properties of plant stem, plant bending modelling. Properties of plant grain: Physical, mechanical, grain damage. Properties of MOG; Mechanical and aerodynamic. Design of grain header; Orienting and supporting reel. Plant cutting cutter bar: Working process, cutter bar drive. Knife cutting speed pattern area. Design of auger for plant collection. Corn header: Working elements, snapping roll design, stalk grasping and drawing process. Corn ear detachment: Stalk cutting and chopping. Cereal threshing and separation; Design of tangential and axial threshing units. Performance indices of threshing units. Modelling material kinematics in different threshing units. Factors influencing the threshing process and power requirement. Separation process and design of straw walker. Cleaning Unit process and operation. Grain pan; Chaffer and bottom sieve. Blower design and flow orientation. Design of conveying system for grain. Straw choppers and shredders.
Practical: Measurement of spray characters for different nozzles. Problems on sizing of sprayer components. Design of sprayer for special purpose: Orchard and tall trees. Harvesting machine. Problems on design of cutterbars, reels, platform auger, conveyors. Design of threshing drum: Radial and axial flow type. Design of cleaning and grading systems. Design of blowers.
Management of Farm Power and Machinery System
Content: Importance and objectives of farm mechanization in Indian agriculture, its impact, strategies, myths and future needs. Estimation of operating cost of tractors and farm machinery. Management and performance of power, operator, labour. Economic performance of machinery, field capacity, field efficiency and factors affecting field efficiency. Tractor power performance in terms of PTO, drawbar and fuel consumption. Power requirement problems to PTO, DBHP. Selection of farm machinery, size selection, timeliness of operation, optimum width and problem related to its power selection. Reliability of agricultural machinery. Replacement of farm machinery and inventory control of spare parts. Systems approach to farm machinery management and application of programming techniques to farm machinery selection and scheduling. Network Analysis: Transportation, CPM and PERT, dynamic programming, Markov chain.
Practical: Study of latest development of different agricultural equipment and implements in India and other developing countries. Size selection of agricultural machinery. Experimental determination of field capacity of different farm machines. Study of farm mechanization in relation to crop yield. Determination of optimum machinery system for field crop and machine constraints. To develop computer program for the selection of power and machinery.
Principles of Automation and Control
Content: Introduction to industrial automation and control: Architecture of industrial automation systems, review of sensors and measurement systems. Introduction to process control: PID control, controller tuning, implementation of PID controllers, special control structures, feed forward and ratio control, predictive control, control of systems with inverse response, cascade control, overriding control, selective control and split range control. Introduction to sequence control: PLCs and relay ladder logic, sequence control, scan cycle, RLL syntax, sequence control structured design approach, advanced RLL programming, the hardware environment, Introduction to CNC machines. Control of machine tools: Analysis of a control loop, introduction to actuators. Flow control valves, hydraulic actuator systems, principles, components and symbols, pumps and motors. Proportional and servo valves. Pneumatic control systems, system components, controllers and integrated control. Control systems: Electric drives, introduction, energy saving with adjustable speed drives stepper motors, principles, construction and drives. DC motor drives: Introduction to DC-DC converters, adjustable speed drives. Induction motor drives: Introduction, characteristics, adjustable speed drives. Synchronous motor drivemotor principles, adjustable speed and servo drives. Networking of sensors, actuators and controllers, the fieldbus, the fieldbus communication protocol, introduction to production control systems.
Practical: Control system practical: Characteristics of DC servomotor, AC/DC position control system. ON/OFF temperature control system. Step response of second order system, temperature control system using PID level control system. Automation: Introduction to ladder logic, writing logic and implementation in ladder. PLC programming, water level controller using programmable logic controller. Batch process reactor using programmable logic controller. Speed control of AC servo motor using programmable logic controller.
Principles of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Content: Hydraulic power, its advantages, applications, properties of hydraulic fluids, viscosity, bulk modulus, density. Concepts of energy of hydraulic systems, laws of fluid flow. Hydraulic pump and motors, principle, capacity, classifications, working, performance. Design of various types of pumps and motors. Actuators, types, design of linear actuator and rotary actuators. Hydraulic rams, gear motors, piston motors and their performance characteristics. Hose, filters, reservoirs, types of circuits, intensifier, accumulator, valves. Valve types: Direction control, deceleration, flow, pressure control, check valve and their working etc. Hydraulic circuit design. Applications in farm power and machinery: Tractor, combine, farm machinery systems, hydrostatic system etc. Power pack, pneumatic circuits, properties of air. Compressors, types. Design of pneumatic circuits.
Practical: Study of various hydraulic pumps, motors, valves, directional control valves, cylinder piston arrangements, engineering properties of hydraulic fluids, hydraulic system of tractor, power steering system.
Applied Instrumentation in Farm Machinery
Content: Strain gauges, types and applications in two and three dimensional force measurement in farm machinery. Various methods of determining strain/stresses experimentally. Design, selection and analysis of strain gauges. Introduction to transducers (sensors). Active and passive transducers, analog and digital modes, null and deflection methods. Performance characteristics of instruments including static and dynamic characteristics. Load cells, torque meters, flow meters types and principles of working. Devices for measurement of temperature, relative humidity, pressure, sound, vibration, displacement (LVDT) etc. Recording devices and their types. Measuring instruments for calorific value of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Basic signal conditioning devices, data acquisition system. Micro computers for measurement and data acquisition. Data storage and their application including wireless communication. Application of sensors in farm machinery and power: Tractor and selected farm machinery.
Practical: Calibration of load cells, torque meters, flow meters etc. Experiment on LVDT, strain gauge transducer, speed measurement using optical devices, vibration measurement, making of thermocouples etc, application of sensors in farm machinery like wheel hand hoe, etc.
Systems Simulation and Computer Aided Problem Solving in Engineering
Content: Mathematical modeling and engineering problem solving: Conservation laws and engineering. Computers and software: Software development, structured programming, logical representation. Modular programming. Approximation: Round off errors, truncation errors, significant figures, accuracy and precision. Nature of simulation: Systems models and simulation, discreet event simulation, time advance mechanisms, components of discrete event simulation model, simulation of single server queuing system. Program organization and logic, development of algorithm. Simulation of an inventory system. Solving roots of equation using computers. Application in: Ideal and non-ideal gas laws, open channel flows, design of an electric circuit, vibration analysis. Solving linear algebraic equation on computers: Naïve Gauss Elimination, techniques for improving solutions, LU decomposition and matrix inversion. Application in: Steady state analysis of chemical reactors, statically determinate truss, current and voltage in circuits, spring mass systems. Optimization techniques. Search techniques: Golden Sections, quadratic interpolation. Application: Optimum design of tank, least cost treatment of waste water, power transfer for circuits. Solving ordinary differential equation on computers: Modeling engineering systems with ordinary differential equation, solution techniques using computers.
Practical: Comparison of analytical and numerical solutions using Spread sheet. Generation of random variables. Generation of discreet and continuous random variate-coding. Implementation of single server queue on computer. Exercises with software packages for roots of equation: Solving linear algebraic equation, curve fitting and optimization. Solving simultaneous equation through Gauss elimination, solving steady state analysis of chemical reactors, statically determinate truss, current and voltage in circuits, spring mass systems on computers. Application of ordinary differential equation to solve mixed reactor problems, predator prey models and chaos.
Computer Aided Design of Machinery
Practical: Learning 2D drafting: Controlling display settings, setting up units, drawing limits and dimension styles. Drawing and dimensioning simple 2D drawings, keyboard shortcuts. Working with blocks, block commands. Exercise in simple assembly in orthographic. Exercise in measuring and drawing simple farm machinery parts. Learning 3D Drafting: Advantages of virtual prototyping-starting the 3D drafting environment, self learning tools, help and tutorials. Familiarizing with user interface, creating files and file organization, structuring and streamlining. Features of document window. Concept of coordinate system: Working coordinate system, model coordinate system, screen coordinate system, graphics exchange standards anddatabase management system. Working with feature manager and customizing the environment. Planning and capturing design intent. Documentation of design. Using design journal and design binder. Preliminary design review and layout. Practice in drawing 2D sketches with sketcher and modifying sketch entries. Adding Reference geometry: Planes and axes. Adding relations and working with relations. Dimensioning a sketch. Exercises. Parts and features: Sketched features and applied features, pattern and mirror features. Documenting design. Assembly: Creating and organizing assemblies, connecting parts and subassemblies with mates. Organizing the assembly by using layouts. Exercise in creating drawing: Setting up and working with drawing formats, creating drawing views from the 3D model, making changes and modifying dimensions. Case studies: Measuring and drawing assemblies of farm implements and their components.
Advanced Manufacturing Technologies
Content: Material and their characteristics, structure and properties of materials, wood, ferrous, Non-ferrous, alloys, plastic, elastomers, ceramics and composites. Material selection and metallurgy: Equilibrium diagram, time temperature transformation curves, heat treatments, surface treatment: Roughness and finishing. Measurement and quality assurance: Quality control, tolerance, limits and clearance. Automated 3-D coordinate measurements. Advance casting processes and powder metallurgy. Forming process: Fundamentals of metal forming, hot and cold rolling, forging processes, extrusion and drawing. Workshop practices applied in prototype production, jigs and fixtures. Traditional machining processes: Cutting tools, turning, boring, drilling, milling and related processes. Non traditional machining processes fuzzy c-mean (FCM), electric discharge machining (EDM), laser beam machining (LBM), Abrasive jet machining (AJM), and Wire-electro-discharge machining (EDM). Joining processes: Gas flame processes, arc processes, brazing and soldering, adhesive and bonding. Numerical control: Command system codes, programme, cutter position X and Y, incremental movements, linear contouring, Z movements and commands. Manufacturing systems and automation. Robotics and robot arms. 3-D printing. Integrated manufacturing production system. Practical Identification of material and their application. Study of heat treatment processes and their suitability with respect to materials. Tool and equipments for measurements: Tolerance limits, clearance and surface finish. Site visits for study of advanced manufacturing techniques. Case studies.
Advanced Manufacturing Technologies
Content: Importance of precision agriculture. Mapping in farming for decision making. Geographical concepts of PA.Understanding and identifying variability. Geographical Position System (GPS) Basics (Space Segment, Receiver Segment, Control Segment), Error and correction, Function and usage of GPS. Introduction to Geographic Information system (GIS), function of GIS, use of GIS for decisions. IDI devices usage in Precision Agriculture Yield monitor, variable rate applicator for fertilizers, seed, chemicals etc. Remote sensing Aerial and satellite imagery. Above ground (non-contact) sensors. Data analysis, concepts of data analysis, resolution, Surface analysis. Analysis application interpretive products (map, charts, application map etc). Electronics and Control Systems for Variable rate applications, Precision Variable Equipment, Tractor-Implement interface technology, Environmental Implications of Precision Agriculture. Goals based on end results of Precision Agriculture, Recordkeeping, Spatial Analysis, Variable Rate Application, Reducing of negative environmental impact, Crop/ technology cost optimization. Economic of precision agriculture and determining equipment and software, review of Cost/Benefit of Precision Agriculture, System vs. Parcels. Making a selection.
Practical: Calculation of the benefits of Data and Mapping, Determining Latitude/Longitude, UTM or State Plane Position Navigation with Waypoints, Configuring a GPS System. Defining area of field for prescriptive treatment. Making the Grid, The Grid Sampling Process, generation of yield maps, Thematic or Spatial Resolution, YieldMap Example, Surface Analysis in Arc-View.
Machinery for Horticulture and Protected Agriculture
Content: Vegetable cultivation, nursery machinery, tray seeders, grafting machines, vegetable trans-planters. Machinery for planting crops on raised beds, mulch laying and planting machines. Harvesting of vegetable crops: Harvesting platforms and pickers. Machinery for orchard crops: Pit diggers, inter-cultivators and basin forming equipment for orchards. Machinery for transplanting of trees. Harvesters for fruit crops: Shaker harvesters, types and principle of operation. Elevated platforms for orchard management and harvesting. Pruning machines. Machinery for orchards, vineyard machinery spraying machines, inter-cultivation machines. High clearance machines and special purpose machinery for crops on trellis. Machinery for special crops: Tea leaf harvesters, pruners and secateurs. Machinery for lawn and garden: Grass cutters, special machinery for turf maintenance. Turf aerators and lime applicators. Protected agriculture: Principles, mechanical systems of greenhouse, ventilation systems, shading system, water fogging system, irrigation system, sensors, electrical and electronic system. Intelligent Control system for greenhouses. Machinery for processing of growth media, tray filling machines-tray sowing machines, transplanting machines. Robotic grafting machines. Weeding and thinning equipment. Crop protection and harvest under protected agriculture.
M.Tech. in Processing and Food Engineering
Transport Phenomena in Food Processing
Content: Introduction to heat and mass transfer and their analogy. Steady and unsteady state heat transfer. Analytical and numerical solutions of unsteady state heat conduction equations. Use of Gurnie-Lurie and Heisler Charts in solving heat conduction problems: Applications in food processing including freezing and thawing of foods. Convective heat transfer in food processing systems involving laminar and turbulent flow. Heat transfer in boiling liquids. Heat transfer between fluids and solid foods. Functional design of heat exchangers: shell and tube, plate and scraped surface heat exchangers. Radiation heat transfer: governing laws, shape factors, applications in food processing. Momentum transfer.Mass flow and balance. Steady and unsteady flow. Theory and equation of continuity.Bernoulli’s theorem and application. Flow through immerged bodies, Measurement of flow, pressure and other parameters. Flow driving mechanism. Molecular diffusion in gases, liquids and solids. Molecular diffusion in biological solutions and suspensions. Molecular diffusion in solids. Unsteady state mass transfer and mass transfer coefficients. Molecular diffusion with convection and chemical reaction. Diffusion of gases in porous solids and capillaries. Mass transfer applications in food processing.
Practical: Solving problems on steady and unsteady state conduction with or without heat generation. Numerical analysis. Problems in natural and forced convection, radiation. Design of heat exchangers. Experiments on heat conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer.
Unit Operations in Food Process Engineering
Content: Review of basic engineering mathematics. Units and dimensions. Mass and energy balance. Principles of fluid flow. Heat transfer: Conduction, convection and radiation.Heat exchangers and their designs. Drying and dehydration: Psychrometry, theories of drying, EMC, equipment for drying of solid, pastes and liquid foods. Evaporation: Components, heat and mass balance in single and multiple effect evaporators, equipment and applications, steam economy. Thermal processing: Blanching, pasteurization and sterilization, death rate kinetics, process time calculations, sterilization equipment. Refrigeration and freezing: Principles, freezing curve, freezing time calculation, freezing equipment, cold chain. Mechanical separation: Principle and equipment involved in sieving, filtration, sedimentation and centrifugation, cyclone separation. Material handling: Conveyors and elevators, components and design considerations for belt, chain, bucket and screw conveyors. Size reduction: Principles of size reduction, size reduction laws. Size reduction equipment: Jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, roller mill, hammer mill.
Practical: Study of fluid flow properties. Study of heat exchangers, functional design of heatexchangers.Application of psychometric chart.Determination of EMC.Study of driers. Solving problems on single and multiple effect evaporator. Elevating and conveying equipments. Size reduction equipments. Cleaning and sorting equipment. Sieve analysis. Kinetics of fruits and vegetables dehydration.Calculation of refrigeration load, solving of numerical problems. Visit to related food industry.
Field Crops Process Engineering
Content: Production and utilization of cereals and pulses, grain structure of major cereals, pulses and oilseeds and their milling fractions. Grain quality standards and physicochemical methods for evaluation of quality of flours. Pre-milling treatments and their effects on milling quality. Parboiling and drying, conventional, modern and integrated rice milling operations. Wheat roller flour milling. Processes for milling of corn, oats, barley, gram, pulses, paddy and flour milling equipment.Layout of milling plants. Dal mills, handling and storage of by-products and their utilization. Storage of milled products.Expeller and solvent extraction processing.Assessment of processed product quality. Packaging of processed products. Design characteristics of milling equipment, selection, installation and their performance. Quality standards for various processed products. Value added products of cereals, pulses and oilseeds.
Practical: Physical properties of cereals and pulses, raw and milled products quality evaluations:Parboiling and drying, terminal velocities of grains and their fractions, study of paddy, wheat, pulses and oilseeds milling equipments, planning and layout of various milling plants. Development of value added products for cereals, pulses and oilseeds, visit to related agro processing industry.
Horticultural Crops Process Engineering
Content: Importance of postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables, structure, cellular components, composition and nutritive value of fruits and vegetables, fruit ripening, spoilage of fruits and vegetables. Harvesting and washing, pre-cooling, blanching, preservation of fruits and vegetables, commercial canning of fruits and vegetables, minimal processing of fruits and vegetables. Cold storage of fruits and vegetables, controlled atmosphere and modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables, quality deterioration and storage. Dehydration of fruits and vegetables, methods, osmotic dehydration, foam mat drying, freeze drying, microwave heating, applications, radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, irradiation sources. Intermediate moisture foods, ohmic heating principle, high pressure processing of fruits and vegetables, applications, sensory evaluation of fruit and vegetable products, packaging technology for fruits and vegetables, general principles of quality standards and control, FPO, quality attributes.
Practical: Determination of size, shape, density, area-volume-mass relationship of fruits and vegetables, sugar-acid ratio of fruits, evaluation of washer, grader and packaging methods, experiments on drying of fruits and vegetables, controlled atmosphere storage and quality evaluation.
Storage Engineering and Handling of Agricultural Produce
Content: Storage of grains, biochemical changes during storage, production, distribution and storage capacity estimate models, storage capacity models, ecology, storage factors affecting losses, storage requirements. Bag and bulk storage, godowns, bins and silos, rat proof godowns and rodent control, method of stacking, preventive method, bio-engineering properties of stored products, function, structural and thermal design of structures, aeration system. Grain markets, cold storage, controlled and modified atmosphere storage, effects of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide on storage of durable and perishable commodities, irradiation, storage of dehydrated products, food spoilage and preservation, BIS standards. Physical factors influencing flow characteristics, mechanics of bulk solids, flow through hoppers, openings and ducts; design of belt, chain, screw, roller, pneumatic conveyors and bucket elevators, principles of fluidization, recent advances in handling of food materials.
Practical: Physical factors influencing flow characteristics, mechanics of bulk solids, flow through hoppers, openings and ducts, design of belt, chain, screw, roller, pneumatic conveyors and bucket elevators; principles of fluidization; recent advances in handling of food materials.
Food Package Engineering
Content: Introduction of packaging: Package, functions and design. Principle in the development of protective packaging. Deteriorative changes in foodstuff and packaging methods of prevention. Food containers: Rigid containers, glass, wooden boxes, crates, plywood and wire bound boxes, corrugated and fibre board boxes, textile and paper sacks, corrosion of containers (tin plate).Flexible packaging materials and their properties. Aluminum as packaging material.Evaluation of packaging material and package performance. Packaging equipment: Food packages, bags, types of pouches, wrappers, carton and other traditional package.Retortable pouches: Shelf life of packaged foodstuff. Methods to extend shelf life.Packaging of perishables and processed foods. Special problems in packaging of food stuff. Package standards and regulation: Shrink packaging, aseptic packaging, CA and MAP. Biodegradable packaging: Recent advances in packaging, active packaging, smart packaging, antioxidant and antimicrobial packaging, edible films and biodegradable packaging, microencapsulation and nano encapsulation.
Practical: Thickness, substance weight, water absorption capability of flexible packaging materials,strength properties of packaging materials,water vapour and gas transmission rate of flexible packaging materials,identification and chemical resistance of plastic films. Packaging of fruits/vegetables: Estimation of shelf-life of packaged food stuff, familiarization of types of packaging material.
Instrumentation and Sensors in Food Processing
Content: Basic instrumentation systems and transducer principles. Displacement transducers, Potential meters, LDVT, Piezoelectric and capacitive transducers, Digital transducers, velocity transducers. Acceleration and absolute motion measurement, Force transducer, Strain gauge, Hydraulic load cell, Cantilever type and probing ring. Method of separation of force: Torque, power and energy measuring technique. Temperature measurement using bi-metals, thermisters, thermocouples, humidity measurement, manometers. Flow transducer, positive displacement, venturimeter, Rotameter, Drag force, hot wire anemometer. Theory and classifications of chemical sensors, biosensors, fibre optic sensors, gas sensors etc. Biosensor: Concepts, types of biosensors, methods of immobilizing biosensors, application. Imaging methods: X-ray imaging, Computed tomography, MRI, Ultrasound, Hyperspectral imaging. Spectroscopy and chemometrics: UV and visual spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy.
Practical: Identification of components of generalized measuring system: Calibration of instruments, experiment on LVDT, strain gauge transducer, force, torque, power and pressure, fluid flow rates, temperature, calorific value, vibration measurement.Use of data loggers and data storage devices, spectroscopy, imaging systems.
Application of Engineering Properties in Food Processing
Content: Physical characteristics of different food grains, fruits and vegetables: Shape and size, description of shape and size, volume and density, porosity, surface area. Rheology: ASTM standard, terms, physical states of materials, classical ideal material, rheological models and equations, viscoelasticity, creep-stress relaxation, non-Newtonian fluid and viscometry, rheological properties, force, deformation, stress, strain, elastic, plastic behaviour. Contact stresses between bodies, Hertz problems, firmness and hardness, mechanical damage, dead load and impact damage, vibration damage, friction, effect of load, sliding velocity, temperature, water film and surface roughness. Friction in agricultural materials, rolling resistance, angle of internal friction, angle of repose, flow of bulk granular materials, aero dynamics of agricultural products, drag coefficients, terminal velocity. Thermal properties: Specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, methods of determination, steady state and transient heat flow. Electrical properties: Dielectric loss factor, loss tangent, A.C. conductivity and dielectric constant, method of determination, energy absorption from high frequency electric field. Application of engineering properties in design and operation of agricultural equipment and structures.
Practical: Experiments for the determination of physical properties like length, breadth, thickness, surface area, bulk density, porosity, true density, coefficient of friction, angle of repose and colour for various food grains, fruits, vegetables, spices and processed foods, aerodynamic properties like terminal velocity, lift and drag force for food grains, thermal properties like thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat. Rheological properties: firmness and hardness of grain, fruits and stalk, electrical properties like dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, loss tangent and A.C. conductivity of various food materials.
Food Quality and Safety
Content: Food safety:Need for quality control and safety, strategy and criteria, microbiological criteria for safety and quality, scope of food toxicology, toxic potential and food toxicants, biological and chemical contaminants. Food additives and derived substances, factors affecting toxicity, designing safety in products and processes, intrinsic factors, establishing a safe raw material supply, safe and achievable shelf life. Process equipment and machinery auditing, consideration of risk, environmental consideration, mechanical quality control. Personnel hygienic standards, preventative pest control, cleaning and disinfesting system, biological factors underlying food safety. Preservation and stability, contaminants of processed foods, adulteration, prevention and control, FSSAI, ISO, Codex, GMP, BIS and HACCP.Practices, principles, standards, specifications, application establishment and implementation, HACCP and quality management system.Food Safety Management Systems (FSMS), Traceability.
Practical: Microbiological examination of food, hazard analysis, premises design, HACCP project plan, CCP, CCP Decision tree, HACCP control chart. HACCP case studies: Survey, BIS, FPO, Codex standards and specifications. Visits to food industries to study the various quality and safety aspects adopted.
Food Processing Technologies
Content: Mixing and homogenization; Principles of solid and liquid mixing, types of mixers for solids, liquid and pastes homogenization. Emulsification: Principles and equipments. Novel dehydration technologies; Osmotic dehydration, foam mat drying, puff drying, freeze drying, microwave drying, dehumidified air drying. Extrusion: Theory, equipment, applications. Non-thermal processing; Principles and equipment involved in ohmic heating, pulsed electric field preservation, hydrostatic pressure technique (vacuum processing, high pressure processing of Foods), ultrasonic technology, irradiation, quality changes and effects on microorganisms, nanotechnology in food processing. Distillation, leaching and extraction: Principles and equipment for distillation, crystallization, phase equilibria, multistage calculations, leaching principles and equipment, solvent extraction, super-critical fluid extraction, near critical fluid extraction: Equipment and experimental techniques used in NCF extraction andindustrial application, advanced methods for extraction of food components and aroma recovery. Food plant hygiene; Cleaning, sterilizing, waste disposal methods, Food processing plant utilities, steam requirements in food processing, HACCP in food processing industries.
Practical: Conducting experiments and solving problems on mixing and mixing indices, homogenization, distillation, crystallisation, extraction, leaching, membrane separation, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, design of plate and packed tower, visit to related food industry.
Food Processing Equipment and Plant Design
Content: Design considerations of processing agricultural and food products. Design of machinery for drying, milling, separation, grinding, mixing, evaporation, condensation, membrane separation. Human factors in design, selection of materials of construction and standard component, design standards and testing standards. Plant design concepts and general design considerations: Plant location, location factors and their interaction with plant location, location theory models, and computer aided selection of the location. Feasibility analysis and preparation of feasibility report; Plant size, factors affecting plant size and their interactions, estimation of break-even and economic plant size. Product and process design, process selection, process flow charts, computer aided development of flow charts. Hygienic design aspects and worker’s safety, functional design of plant building and selection of building materials, estimation of capital investment, analysis of plant costs and profitability’s, management techniques in plant design including applications of network analysis, preparation of project report and its appraisal.
Practical: Detailed design and drawing of mechanical dryers, milling equipment, separators, evaporators, mixers and separators. Each individual student will be asked to select a food processing plant system and develop a plant design report which shall include product identification and selection, site selection, estimation of plant size, process and equipment selection, process flow-sheeting, plant layout, and its evaluation and profitability analysis.
Seed Process Engineering
Content: Processing of different seeds and their engineering properties, principles and importance of seed processing. Performance characteristics of different unit operations such as precleaning, grading, conveying, elevating, drying, treating, blending, packaging and storage, seed processing machines like scalper, debreader, huller, velvet separator, spiral separator, cleaner-cum-grader, specific gravity separator, indent cylinder, disc separator, and colour sorter, seed treater, weighing and bagging machines, their operation and maintenance, installation and determination of their capacity, seed quality maintenance during processing, plant design and layout, economy and safety consideration in plant design. Seed drying principles and methods, theory of seed drying, introduction to different types of heated air dryers, significance of moisture equilibrium, method of maintaining safe seed moisture, thumb rule and its relevance. Importance of scientific seed storage, types of storage structures to reduce temperature and humidity, management and operation/cleanliness of seed stores, packaging-principles, practices, materials and hermetic packaging, seed treatment methods and machines used, method of stacking and their impact, design features of medium and long term seed storage building.
Practical: Study of various seed processing equipments such as pre-cleaners, scalpers, air screen cleaners, graders, spiral and pneumatic separators, seed treating equipment, bag closures, scale etc. and their performance evaluation, design and layout of seed processing plant and its economics, analysis of cost of operation and unit cost of processed product, effect of drying temperature and duration of seed germination and storability.
Agri-Project Planning and Management
Content: Project development, market survey and time motion analysis. Selection of equipment, technology option, techno-economic feasibility and processing in production catchment. Product and process design, PERT, CPM, transport model, simplex, linear and dynamic programming, operation log book. Material balance and efficiency analysis, performance testing, performance indices, energy requirement and consumption. Marketing of agricultural products, market positioning. BIS/FSSAI/ISO standards/ guidelines on best practices, equipment and their design and operation for handling, processing and storage of food/feed.
Practical: Preparation of project and feasibility report. Salient features, design and layout of different food processing units; MSME, large processing unit. Record keeping related to production, finance and marketing. Techno-economic feasibility and SWOT analysis for Start-ups.
Farm Structures and Environmental Control
Content: Farmstead planning, survey and data collection for information bank. Analysis of data, Lay outs. Cost estimation and appraisal. Project development; Time, motion and input analysis, flow charts and drawings andcase studies. Farm structures (farmstead, livestock, poultry, storage godowns, farm machinery storage, biogas, green house, net house etc), their design, constructional details and design of low cost structures. Heating, ventilating and exhaust systems, air distribution and air cleaning, combustion of fuels and equipment. Drying and dehumidification system, air-water contact operations and evaporation, process and product air conditioning, energy efficient environmental control practices. Rural electrification, households electric wiring, rural water supply and sanitation. Instruments and measurements:Codes and standards.
Practical: Calculation of heating and cooling load,design calculation of moisture condensation in agricultural buildings, study of moisture migration behaviour in storage bins, design aspect of green house, net house, septic tank, grain storage structures, cold storage.
Dairy Product Processing
Content: Procurement, transportation and processing of market milk, cleaning and sanitization of dairy equipment. Special milks such as flavoured, sterilized, recombined and reconstituted toned and double toned. Condensed milk: Methods of manufacture and related equipment, evaluation of condensed and evaporated milk. Dried milk: Definition, methods of manufacture of skim and whole milk powder, instantiation, physiochemical properties, evaluation, defects in dried milk powder. Cream: Cream separation, neutralization, sterilization, pasteurization and cooling of cream, defects in cream, Butter: methods of manufacture, defects in butter. Ice cream: Methods of manufacture and related equipment, defects in ice cream, technology of softy manufacture. Cheese: Methods of manufacture, cheddar, Gouda, cottage and processed cheese, defects in cheese. Indigenous milk products: Method of manufacture of yoghurt, dahi, khoa, burfi, kalakand, gulabjamun, rosogolla, srikhand, chhana, paneer, ghee, lassietc.Probiotic milk product.
Practical: Estimation and fat and SNF in milk.Operation of LTLT and HTST Pasteurization. Preparation of special milks.Cream separation and standardization of milk. Preparation and evaluation of table butter, ice-cream, cheese and indigenous milk product such as khoa, chhana, paneer, ghee, rosogolla, gulabjamun, shrikhand, lassi, burfi, etc. Visit to dairy plants.
Processing of Meat, Poultry and Fish
Content: Meat: Genetic engineering of farm animals for better meat quality, automation for the modern slaughterhouse, hot-boning of meat, new spectroscopic techniques for online monitoring of meat quality, real-time PCR for the detection of pathogens in meat, new developments in decontaminating raw meat, automated meat processing, developments in chilling and freezing of meat, high pressure processing of meat, approaches for the development of functional meat products, new techniques for analyzing raw meat, modified atmosphere packaging, perspectives for the active packaging of meat products. Poultry: Breeding and quality of poultry, stunning and slaughter of poultry, processing and packaging of poultry, new techniques of preservation of poultry, production of turkeys, geese, ducks and game birds, microbial hazards in poultry production and processing, latest trends in measuring quality of poultry and poultry products, treatment and disposal of poultry processing waste. Fish and seafood: Fresh fish handling and chill storage, modified atmospheric packaging of seafoods, fish odours and flavours, assessment of freshness of fish and seafoods, traditional dried and salted fish products, proteolysed fish products, minced fish technology, retort pouch processing technology, irradiation and microwave in fish handling and processing, advanced freezing technology for fish storage, high pressure processing of seafoods, value addition of freshwater and aqua cultured fish products, application of enzymes in fish processing and quality control, toxins, pollutants and contaminants in fish and seafoods. Milk: Physical, chemical and nutritional properties of milk components, improvements in the pasteurization and sterilization of milk. Flavour generation in dairy products, controlling texture of fermented dairy products, functional dairy products, on-line measurement of product quality in dairy processing, high pressure processing of milk products, novel separation technologies to produce dairy ingredients, new technologies to increase shelf-life of dairy products, genetic engineering of milk proteins, production and utilization of functional milk proteins, methods of improving nutritional quality of milk, significance of milk fat in dairy products, chromatographic, spectrometric, ultrasound and other techniques for analysis of milk lipids.
Practical: Analysis of fresh and processed meat, fish, poultry and milk products, preservation of fresh meat and fish, processing and production of different products from fresh meat, fish and milk, shelflife studies on different meat, fish and milk products. Visit to processing plants.
Design of Aquacultural Structures
Content: Inland fish farming and associated considerations. Fish physiology and micro-climatic considerations.Site selection for aquaculture structures. Design of dykes, sluice, channels etc. Aeration and feeding systems: Design of fish rearing structures, hatcheries, containers for live fish, fingerlings, fish seeds. Aquaculture in recirculatory systems, oxygen and aeration, sterilization and disinfection. Recirculation of water:Reuse systems, water exchange, design of reuse systems, Inlet and outlet structures and water treatment plants.
Practical: Aeration and feeding systems of fish ponds, fish farming structures, water treatment plants, containers for live fish.Design of re-use systems.Inlet and outlet structures.
Thermal Environmental Engineering for Agricultural Processing
Content: Requirements of temperature and moisture in food preservation, processing, storage, animal and plant production systems, human comfort etc. Thermodynamic properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, psychrometric processes and applications. Mass transfer and evaporation of water from free surfaces, theory of psychrometer, direct contact transfer processes between moist air and water-air washer, cooling tower, heating and cooling of moist air by extended surface coils, dehumidification using moisture absorbing materials. Solar irradiations on structures, calculation of heating and cooling loads in buildings/ storage structures. Design of air conditioning systems, air distribution and duct design, air flow pattern and control, equipment, components and controls.Instruments for measurement and control of temperature and moisture. Thermal insulation materials for environmental control systems, applications of environmental control in green house, dairy industry, potato storage etc.
– Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
M.Tech. in Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Course Code Course Title Credits
IDE 501 Design of Surface Irrigation Systems
*IDE 502 Design of Farm Drainage Systems
IDE 503 Command Area Management
IDE 504 Water and Nutrient Management Under Protected
*IDE 505 Design of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
*IDE 506 Ground Water Engineering
SWCE 507/IDE 507 Remote Sensing and GIS for Land and Water Resource 2+1
IDE 508 Waste Water Management and Utilization in Agriculture
IDE 509 Water Conveyance and Distribution
IDE 510 Minor Irrigation
IDE 511 Design of Pumps for Irrigation and Drainage
IDE 512 Crop Environmental Engineering
IDE 513 Water Resources Systems Engineering
IDE 514 Irrigation Economics, Planning and Management
IDE 515 Sensing and Automation in Irrigation Systems
M.Tech. in Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Course Title: Design of Surface Irrigation Systems IDE 501
Content: Climate and irrigation water requirement. Irrigation principles, losses, conveyance, distribution, application and water budgeting. Estimation techniques of effective rainfall. Irrigation softwares: CROPWAT, AQUACROP. Farm irrigation systems. Irrigation efficiencies. Economic feasibility. Irrigation water quality and salinity management techniques. Design of water conveyance, control and distribution systems. Hydraulics: Design and operation of border, check basin, furrow, sprinkler and trickle irrigation systems. Flow dynamics, drop size distribution and spray losses in sprinklers. Cablegation, surge and bubbler irrigation. Automation of irrigation system. Basic water management concepts and objectives. Alternative irrigation scheduling techniques. Integrated approach to irrigation water management.
Practical: Design and evaluation of border, furrow, check basin, sprinkler and micro-irrigation. Computation of frictional losses. Design of underground water conveyance systems. Economics of irrigation methods. Visit to mechanized farms.
Course Title: Design of Farm Drainage Systems IDE 502
Content: Salt affected waterlogged areas in India. Water quality criteria and brackish water use for agriculture. Drainage requirements and crop growth under salt affected waterlogged soil. Concept of critical water table depth for waterlogged soil and crop growth. Drainage investigations and drainage characteristics of various soils. Methods of drainage system and drainage coefficient. Theories and applications of surface and subsurface drainage. Planning, design and installation of surface and subsurface drainage systems for waterlogged and saline soils. Theories and design of vertical drainage, horizontal subsurface drainage and multiple well point system. Drainage materials. Steady and unsteady state drainage equations for layered and non-layered soils. Principle and applications of Hooghoudt, Kirkham, Earnst, Glover Dumm, Kraijenhoff-van-de-leur equations. Drainage for salinity control. Salt balance, leaching requirement and management practices under drained conditions. Disposal of drainage effluents. Case study for reclamation of salt affected waterlogged areas.
Practical: Measurement of in-situ hydraulic conductivity. Estimation of drainage coefficient and leaching requirements. Delineation of waterlogged areas through isobar, isobath and topographic maps. Design of surface and subsurface drainage systems. Design of filter and envelop materials.
Course Title: Command Area Management IDE 503
Content: Concept of command area development as an integrated approach. Command area project formulation, major, medium and minor projects. Command areas in India, command area activities and their prioritization. Source of budget for CAD works. Structure of command area development, organization, role and responsibilities of CADA. Laser based land grading survey and levelling in command areas. Design of lined and unlined canals. Diversion head works and canal head regulators, cross drainage works, canal falls, canal breaches. Design of On Farm Water Distribution Network, operation and maintenance of canal. Assessment and appraisal of water availability in command areas. Water management problems in command areas and their possible remedies. Duty of water, its determination and factors affecting it. Methods of improving duty of canal water. Feasibility of drip irrigation in irrigated command areas. Single and multi-objective command area planning for the better management and allocation of irrigation water. Conjunctive use of canal water and groundwater. Real time canal irrigation scheduling. Canal performance indices. Diagnostic analysis and perform appraisal of command area projects. Water user’s association–functions, problems encountered during formation of WUA and strategy and overcome the problems. Participatory irrigation management efforts and strategy for preparing PIM. Socio economic aspects of irrigation management in command areas.
Practical: Study of canal, tank and tube well in a command area. Study of design and operational parameters of a command area. Study of water balance in a command. Study the impact of command area project on crop yield and environment. Conflict resolution through PRA exercise. Diagnostic analysis of the problems of command area through PRA and field observations. Analysis of equity in water distribution. Considerations for preparation of roistering schedules. Study of the functioning of irrigation cooperatives/water user’s associations. Preparation of command area development plan.
Course Title: Water and Nutrient Management under Protected Cultivation IDE 504
Content: Significance of soilless culture in agriculture. Functions of the root system. Response of root growth to local nutrient concentrations. Interactions between environmental conditions and form of N nutrition. Roots as source and sink for organic compounds and plant hormones. Physical and chemical properties of soilless media. Water content and water potential in soilless media. Water movement in soilless media. Uptake of water by plants in soilless media and water availability. Production technology for vegetables under protected conditions in soil and soilless media. Automation for climate control in protected structures. Thermal modeling of greenhouse environment for protected cultivation.
Practical: Filter types and its selection criteria. Design and installation of drip irrigation system for vegetables and orchards. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling for vegetables and horticultural. Study of different types of sensors, relay and control mechanism for controlled irrigation and fertigation. Design of automated system for irrigation and fertigation. Design and installation of different protected structures as per the guidelines of NHM. Design and fabrication of soilless medium for crop/ flower production. Economical evaluation of automated irrigation system and soilless medium for crop/flower production
Course Title: Design of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems IDE 505
Content: Suitability of sprinkler and drip irrigation systems under Indian conditions. Basic hydraulics of sprinkler and micro irrigation system. Pipe flow analysis. Friction losses and pressure variation. Flow in nozzles and emitters. Design and evaluation of sprinkler and micro irrigation systems in relation to source, soil, climate and topographical conditions. Selection of pipe size, pumps and power units. Layout, distribution, efficiency and economics. Fertigation through sprinkler and micro irrigation systems. Fertigation techniques involved in drip and sprinkler irrigation system.
Practical: Design of drip and sprinkler irrigation system. Calculation of total head. Determination of uniformity of sprinkler discharge at field. Numerical on hydraulics of dripper. Calculation of different types of efficiencies of installed drip system. Calculation of cost benefits of drip and sprinkler irrigation system.
Course Title: Ground Water Engineering IDE 506
Content: Water resources of India. Occurrence, storage and movement of groundwater in alluvial and hard rock formations. Principles of groundwater flow. Interaction between surface water and groundwater. Natural and artificial groundwater recharge. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. Groundwater balance. Fluctuation of water table beneath a recharge site. Delineation of groundwater potential zones using RS and GIS, MODFLOW equation. Derivation of hydraulics of fully and partially penetrating wells in confined, leaky and unconfined aquifers. Flow net analysis. Analysis of multi aquifers. Flow analysis in interfering wells. Pumping tests for estimation of aquifer parameters. Wells near recharge and impermeable boundaries. Skimming well technology. Design of well field. Salt water intrusion in inland and coastal aquifers. Application of groundwater models for groundwater management. Calibration and validation of models.
Practical: Water table contour maps and determination of groundwater flow. Estimation of aquifer characteristics. Problems on non-leaky and leaky aquifers. Analysis of pumping test data. Computation of interference of wells. Groundwater computer simulation models.
Course Title: GIS and Remote Sensing for Land and Water Resource Management IDE 507/SWCE 507
Content: Physics of remote sensing. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR), interaction of EMR with atmosphere, earth surface, soil, water and vegetation. Remote sensing platforms: Monitoring atmosphere, land and water resources: LANDSAT, SPOT, ERS, IKONOS and others. Indian Space Programme. Satellite data analysis. Visual interpretation. Digital image processing. Image preprocessing. Image enhancement. Image classification. Data merging. Basic components of GIS. Map projections and co-ordinate system. Spatial data structure: Raster, vector. Spatial relationship. Topology. Geodatabase models: Hierarchical, network, relational, object-oriented models. Integrated GIS database. Common sources of error. Data quality: Macro, micro and Usage level components, Meta data. Spatial data transfer standards. Thematic mapping. Measurement in GIS: Length, perimeter and areas. Query analysis. Reclassification, Buffering and Neighbourhood functions. Map overlay: Vector and raster overlay. Interpolation and network analysis. Digital elevation modelling. Analytical Hierarchy Process. Object oriented GIS, AM/FM/GIS and Web Based GIS. Spatial data sources. 4M GIS approach water resources system. Thematic maps. Rainfall runoff modelling, groundwater modelling and water quality modelling. Flood inundation mapping and modelling. Drought monitoring. Cropping pattern change analysis. Performance evaluation of irrigation commands. Site selection for artificial recharge. Reservoir sedimentation.
Practical: Familiarization with the remote sensing instruments and satellite imagery. Aerial Photograph and scale determination with stereoscope. Interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photograph. Determination of Parallaxes in images. Introduction to digital image processing software and GIS software and their working principles. Generation of digital elevation model (DEM) for land and water resource management. Case studies on mapping, monitoring and management of natural resources using remote sensing and GIS.
Course Title: Waste Water Management and Utilization in Agriculture IDE 508
Content: Status of wastewater in India. Sources of contamination and characterization of urban and rural wastewater for irrigation. Water quality: Physical, chemical and biological parameters of wastewater. Water quality requirement: Potable water standards, wastewater effluent standards, water quality indices. Irrigation water quality standards and guidelines for their restricted and unrestricted uses. Selection of appropriate forestry trees, fruits, vegetables, oilseeds and food grain crop for wastewater utilization. Control measures for preventing soil and other surface/groundwater source contamination. Different types of wastewater, pollutants and contaminants. Impact of wastewater on ecosystem, eutrophication, biomagnification, water borne diseases. Wastewater treatment methods: Physical, chemical and biological. General water treatments: Wastewater recycling, constructed wetlands, reed bed system. Carbon foot prints of wastewater reuse. Environmental standards. Regulation and environmental impact assessment (EIA): Environmental standardsCPCB Norms for discharging industrial effluents to public sewers. Stages of EIAMonitoring and Auditing. Environmental clearance procedure in India.
Practical: Measurement of water quality indices in the lab. Field demonstration of impact of waste water on eco-system and human health. Waste water treatment methods and effect of waste water in contamination of ground water. Visit of waste water treatment plant near by area.
Course Title : Water Conveyance and Distribution IDE 509
Content: Channel characteristics. Prismatic and non-prismatic channel. Steady, unsteady, uniform and non-uniform flow. Open channel and their properties. Energy and momentum, critical flow computation and application. Basic Concepts of free surface flow, classification of flow, velocity and pressure distribution. Uniform flow, conservation laws and specific energy. Application of momentum and energy equation. Channel transition. Study of critical flow, uniform flow, gradually varied flow, rapid varied flow, spatially varied flow and unsteady flow and their computations. Energy dissipation. Flow control structures and flow measurement. Theories and methods of open channel design. Sediment transport in channels. Regime flow theories. Tractive force theory. Design of stable channels. Basic principles of pipe flow, pipe flow problems and equivalent pipe. Principles of network synthesis. Pipe network analysis. Water transmission lines. Cost considerations: Single-Input source. Branched systems: Single-Input source. Looped Systems: Multi-Input source. Branched systems: Multi-Input source, Looped systems. Decomposition of a large water system and optimal zone size.
Practical: Computation and use of geometrical and hydraulic elements of open channel. Use of flow measuring devices and methods and their limitations. Examination of velocity distribution and calculation of energy and momentum coefficients. Solution of channel design problems. Appraisal of flow control and distribution structures. Analysis and computation of flow profiles.
Course Title: Minor Irrigation IDE 510
Practical: Measurement of seepage loss from reservoirs. Estimation of inflow to surface reservoir. Measurement of evaporation loss from surface reservoirs. Pumping test and determination of aquifer parameters. Establishment of draw down-discharge characteristic. Well log analysis and deciding on length and placement of strainers. Computation of well interference and deciding on well spacing. Estimation of irrigation for given discharge from well. Estimating pumping cost for irrigation. Analysis of ground water quality. Problems on well design.
Course Title: Design of Pumps for Irrigation and Drainage IDE 511
Content: Basic hydraulic design of centrifugal pump. Net positive suction head and cavitation, vapour pressure, water hammering problem in centrifugal pump. Principles and design of pumping systems for agricultural drainage. Selection and performance of characteristics of vertical turbine pump, submersible pump and axial flow pump. Multiple well point system and their design. Energy requirement in groundwater pumping. Non-conventional energy sources for pumping, wind mills, micro turbines, solar pumps. Hydraulic ram: Selection and design criteria. Solar photovoltaic system. Design of pumping station. Techno-economic evaluation. Efficient pumping system operation, flow control strategies and conservation measures for pumping systems.
Course Title: Crop Environmental Engineering IDE 512
Content: Principles of heat, mass and momentum transport. Transport of radiant energy, radiation environment, micro climatology of radiation. Micrometeorology: Turbulent transfer profiles and fluxes. Interpretation of flux measurement. Laws of electromagnetic radiation, its measurement and estimation. Profile balance of heat, mass and momentum in and above crop communities. Climatic changes and plant response to environmental stresses. Measurement and estimation of potential evapotranspiration on point and regional scale. Root anatomy, water flow in roots and root density models (microscopic and macroscopic). Stem anatomy and pressure volume curves. Methods of measuring water status in plants. Estimating ET using three temperature model and MODIS algorithm. Soil–Plant–Atmosphere system: Basic properties. Dynamics of water movement. ET-yield relations. Principles of optimal scheduling of irrigation and seasonal allocation of limiting water supplies using LP and DP. Seasonal and dated production functions. Crop yield modelling and condition assessment. Instrumentation and techniques for monitoring plant environments. Design and operation of controlled environment facilities and their instrumentation. Climatic changes and plant response to environmental stresses. Evapotranspiration models.
Course Title : Water Resources Systems Engineering IDE 513
Content: Concepts and significance of optimization in water resources management. Model development in water management. Objective functions, deterministic and stochastic inputs. Soil plant atmosphere system. Problem formulation. Mathematical programming techniques: Linear programming, simplex method. Non-linear programming, quadratic programming, integer programming. Transportation problem and solution procedure. Geometric programming and dynamic programming. Application of optimization techniques for water resources planning. Conjunctive use of water resources. Crop production functions and irrigation optimization. Multi objective water resources planning. Critical path method. Programme evaluation and review technique. Economic models. Project evaluation and discounting methods.
Practical: Assessment of water resources. Problems related to water allocation in agriculture under single and multiple cropping system. Use of computer software for linear and dynamic programming. Introduction to the use of other programming methods. Sensitivity analysis of different alternatives of water resources development and allocation. Analysis of water demand and supply. Analysis of Competitive demands for water by various sectors of development. Benefits and cost of water resources development.
Course Title: Irrigation Economics Planning and Management IDE 514
Content: Economic analysis. Problems in project selection. Methods and approaches to water pricing. Criteria for investment and pricing in irrigation projects. Social benefits, problems and causes of under-utilization. Mathematics of economic analysis. Cost allocation, separable and non-separable costs. Discounting factors and techniques. Determination of benefits, cost and benefit analysis. Project evaluation. Limitations of benefit-cost analysis. Dynamics of project analysis. Role of financial analysis. Distinctions from economic analysis. Financial feasibility and analysis. Impact of public policies on regulation and allocation of irrigation water. Relative economic efficiency of alternative irrigation water management models. Irrigation system improvement by simulation and optimization to enhance irrigation water use efficiency. Indian agriculture, main problems, population, government policies, systems, organizing agriculture production. Farm Management: Definition, importance, scope, relation with other sciences and its characteristics. Socio-economic survey. Importance of such survey in planning, implementation and evaluation of project performance. Planning of socio-economic survey, types of data sets to be collected, preparing the questionnaires form, schedules sampling, editing and scrutinizing of secondary data, classification and analysis of data. Role of farm management principles in decision making for irrigated agriculture. Decision making process, assessing risk and uncertainty in planning.
Course Title: Sensing and Automation in Irrigation Systems IDE 515
Content: Sensing and sensors. Sensor classifications. Wireless sensor networks. History of wireless sensor networks (WSN). Communication in a WSN. Important design constraints of a WSN like Energy, self management, wireless networking, decentralized management, design constraints, security etc. Node architecture. Sensing subsystem. Analog-to-Digital converter. The processor subsystem, architectural overview, microcontroller, digital signal processor, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array (FPGA). Communication interfaces, serial peripheral interface, inter-integrated circuit, the IMote node architecture, The XYZ node architecture, the Hogthrob node architecture. Applications in surface irrigation automation, automation based on volume, time, fertigation scheduling, water logging, salinity, oxygen diffusion systems, etc.
Agricultural Engineering – Renewable Energy Engineering
M.Tech. in Renewable Energy Engineering Major Courses
Course Code Course Title
REE 501* Renewable Energy Technologies
REE 502* Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Technologies
REE 503* Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies
REE 504 Energy Auditing, Conservation and Management
REE 505 Wind Energy Conversion and Utilization
REE 506 Solar Photovoltaic System Design and Analysis
REE 507 Renewable Energy Policy, Planning and Economics
REE 508 Alternate Fuels and Applications
REE 509 Biogas Technology and Mechanism
REE 510 Energy, Ecology and Environment
REE 511 Design and Analysis of Renewable Energy Conversion Systems
REE 512 Energy Generation from Agricultural Waste and Byproducts
REE 513 Agro Energy Audit and Management
REE 514 Green House Energetic and Passive Architecture
REE 515 Energy Management in Food Processing Industries
M.Tech. in Renewable Energy Engineering
Course Title: Renewable Energy Technologies REE 501
Content: Solar Energy: Heat transfer, estimation and physical conversion, Instruments for measurement. Energy collection and analysis: FPC, ETC, concentrating collectors. Solar energy application: Direct and indirect. Solar photovoltaic technology: Conversion, Systems components, integrations and applications. Energy from biomass and wastes: Production, distribution, characterization, treatments, recycling. Biomass conversion technologies: Thermo-chemical, biochemical and agro-chemical technology. Raw materials, process parameters, end products and utilization. Wind energy: Resource estimation, technologies, performance curves, power and torque characteristics. Airfoils and rotors: Wind mill parameters, wind farms design and considerations. Alternate Energy Technologies: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Geothermal, Tidal, Hydro. Energy conversion systems: Resources, systems integrations and analysis, applications. Energy storage: Types, materials, characteristics and application.
Practical: Analysis of solar collectors.Solar Photovoltaic cell characteristics, analysis of SPV systems.Characterization of biomass. Design and benefit analysis of energy systems. Design and efficiency testing of wind energy conversion devices.
Course Title: Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Technologies REE 502
Content: Characteristics of solar radiation: Attenuation, absorption, scattering and air mass. Solar earth geometry. Solar flux and weather data. Solar radiation data and estimation: Radiation estimation models and applications. Heat and mass transfer in solar energy utilization: Gray surface, sky radiation, radiation heat transfer coefficient, reflectivity, transitivity, transmittance absorption product. Selective surfaces and materials. Solar thermal energy collectors (track and untrack): Heat capacity effect, time constant measurement, design and efficiency calculations, F chart method utility. Techno-economic feasibility of solar thermal energy applications: Cooking, air heating for drying, steam generation, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, architecture, absorption cooling, thermal power generation.
Practical: Solar radiation measurement, estimation model applications, design of collectors, study of materials used in solar system. Energy balance and efficiency calculation of collectors.
Course Title: Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies REE 503
Content: Biomass characterization: Types and resources, sustainability issues, assessment tools and methodologies, biomass fuel characterization, Biomass supply chain concept. Direct use of biomass: Size reduction, baling, pelletization, briquetting technologies. Biochemical conversion of biomass: Feedstock, process design, operation, optimized process parameters and utilization for biogas and bioethanol production. Biomass combustion: Stoichiometric air requirement, chemistry of combustion, design of combustion system, combustion zones, flame structure, stability, emissions. Co-firing of biomass. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass: Feedstock, chemistry, reactor design, operation, optimized process parameters and utilization for gasification, carbonization, torrefaction and pyrolysis. Cogeneration technologies: Cycles, topping, bottoming, selection, problems, applications. Waste heat recovery: Estimation, systems, design and application.
Practical: Biomass characterization.Design of bioreactors.Study of techno-economical feasibility of bio-chemical conversion process.Performance evaluation of combustion gadgets, gasifiers and pyrolytic converters.Design of waste heat recovery system.
Course Title: Energy Auditing, Conservation and Management REE 504
Content: Energy conservation: Concepts, energy classification, equivalents, scenario, energy pricing, importance. Energy conservation act. Energy auditing and economics: Energy management, energy audit strategy, types. Energy performance: Bench marking, fuel substitutions, energy audit instruments, material and energy balance. Energy conversion: Energy index, cost index. Financial management. Thermal energy audit: Performance evaluation, energy conservation opportunities in boilers, steam system and furnaces, insulation, refractory’s and other thermal utilities. Electrical Energy audit: Electrical systems, electricity billing, load management, power factor. Performance evaluation and energy conservation opportunities in motors, compressed air system, HVAC and refrigeration system, fans and blowers, pumps and lighting system. Energy auditing and reporting in industries, Replacement of renewable energy technology option, case study in agro-industries.
Practical: Problems on energy index, cost index. Problems on material balance and energy balance. Financial management.Energy audit and conservation opportunities in thermal and electrical utilities. Case studies on energy audit and conservation.
Course Title: Wind Energy Conversion and Utilization REE 505
Content: Wind mapping and assessment: Wind energy potential, nature of wind, Weibull and Rayleigh analysis, instruments, history and taxonomy of wind mills, wind power laws. Wind turbine aerodynamics: Momentum theories, basic aerodynamics, airfoils and their characteristics. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT): Blade element theory, wake analysis. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT): Aerodynamics, rotor design, power regulation, yaw system. Selection of site.Mechanical and electrical applications. Wind farms: Interfacing, maintenance. Management of power generated by wind mill: Instruments and controls. Stand alone and grid connected systems. Wind energy storage. Wheeling and banking. Cost economics. Testing and certification procedures. Wind turbine loads: Aerodynamic loads in steady operation, wind turbulence, static. Wind energy control system (WECS). Synchronous and asynchronous generators. Annual Energy Output (AEO). Testing of WECS.
Practical: Visit to meteorological observatory. Wind velocity mapping and curve analysis. Wind energy instruments and resource assessment. Design of wind mills, water pumping wind mills.Performance evaluation of wind aero-generator. Wind turbine loads. Economics of wind energy systems.
Course Title: Solar Photovoltaic System Design and Analysis REE 506
Content: Physics of solar cells: Crystal structure, band theory, semiconductor, p-n junctions, absorption of radiation, generation, recombination and carrier separation. Standard solar cell structure: I,V characteristics, conversion efficiency, losses in solar cell, impact of radiation and temperature. Solar PV module technologies, First generation: Silicon wafer based technology, Second generation: Thin film technologies, Third generation/emerging PV technologies: Organic PV, Dye sensitized PV, Quantum-dot, Hot-carrier, up conversion and down conversion. Latest benchmark efficiencies: Laboratory and manufacturing. Fabrication technologies. Solar PV systems: Balance of System (BoS), SPV system design guideline and methodologies, introduction to PVSyst, designing of standalone/grid connected PV systems for domestic/commercial use. Rooftop business models: CAPEX and RESCO, canal top, floating PV system design. Materials and devices for energy storage: Batteries, Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNT), fabrication of CNTs, CNT-polymer composites, ultra-capacitors etc.
Practical: Solar cell efficiency testing.SPV fabrication technologies.System integration and BoS matching studies.PV software’s operation and utilization.Design and estimation of SPV systems components for agrobased industrial applications.Batteries performance testing.
Course Title: Renewable Energy Policy, Planning and Economics REE 507
Content: Introduction to policy parameters, regulatory bodies. Introduction to overall policy environment on energy sector, policy formulation parameters. Entities: Consumers and their tariffs, generator, DISCOM, Regulators: CERC and SERC, Statutory bodies. Typical issues of Indian power sector. Indian energy Policy: Introduction, Electricity Act, National Policy on Tariff, Climate Change, RE, Solar Missions, Wind Power and Regulatory Commissions. Concept of Grid Code, Green Corridor, Solar and Hybrid Parks. Electricity Trading: Open Access, RPO Distributed Generation Regional Grid Region. International Energy Policies and Treaties. Policy and planning: Energy, environment interaction, clean development mechanism, financing of energy systems, software for energy planning, socioeconomical approach. Project management in energy: Cost economics-sensitivity and risk analysis. Energy economics: economic evaluation of renewable energy systems, life cycle costing, components of energy investment and risk and uncertainties in energy investment.
Course Title: Alternate Fuels and Applications REE 508
Content: Introduction to alternate fuels: Methanol, ethanol, biogas, producer gas, hydrogen and fuel cell. Production composition and properties, combustion characteristics, comparison with conventional fuels, potential, possibilities and problems. Fuel cell: Principle, classification, system efficiency. Life cycle assessment of fuel cell systems. Hydrogen fuel: Production, gas cleanup, challenges and opportunities. Hydrogen storage and energy economy. Utilization: Thermal and mechanical applications. Environmental impact and safety factors of alternate fuel, efficiency, economics and commercial considerations.
Practical: Performance of I.C. engines on alternate fuels, measurement of flue gas parameters, thermal applications of alternate fuels. Hydrogen production. Biomass based fuel cell. Integrated biomass based gasifier for power generation.
Course Title: Biogas Technology and Mechanism REE 509
Content: Biogas Technology: Potential and status, chemistry, physical conditions and utilization of alternate feedstock materials. Types of reactors: Single phase, two phase processes. High rate biomethanation process, selection of model and size, construction technique, material requirement. Design concept of night soil, kitchen waste, solid state cold condition biogas plants. Biogas distribution and utilization: Properties and uses of biogas, design of gas distribution system. Biogas utilization devices: Biogas scrubbing and compressing, dual fuel engines and its limitations, generation of power. Testing of biogas appliances. Effluent: Handling of effluent biogas plant, effluent treatment and management, BDS applications and enrichment. Cost and financial viability of biogas plants.Repair and maintenance of biogas plants.
Practical: Design of biogas plant for solid and liquid wastes, cost estimation, analysis of biogas, purification of biogas.Performance evaluation of biogas appliances.Testing of biogas burner for heat transfer, thermal and cooking efficiency. Bio digested slurry analysis, use of biogas spent slurry. Carbon credits.
Course Title: Energy, Ecology and Environment REE 510
Content: Global carbon cycle.Carbon reservoirs flow and human interventions. Global warming and climate change. Energy efficient technology: Efficiency hierarchy, energy dependent activities, energy policies, linkage between energy use and economic growth and environment. Ecosystem: Kinds, transfection, components of ecosystem, ecosystem development of evaluation, major ecosystem of the world, physical environment and metrology. Climate change: Impact and models. Energy for sustainable development: Development indices, pillars, subsystems, principles and dimensions. Low carbon technologies: Energy efficiency projects, carbon trading. Environment, Environmental degradation: Thermal and chemical pollution, primaryand secondary pollutant, air pollution, water pollution, unclear energy hazard, radioactive hazards, mining hazards, land use, oil spills and gas leaks. Global environmental changes: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), Kyoto protocol and clean development mechanism: Overview, administration, participation, institutions, procedures, project design and formulation.
Course Title : Design and Analysis of Renewable Energy Conversion Systems REE 511
Content: Energy cycle of the earth. Estimation and assessment of renewable energy sources: Water flow and storage, ocean currents and tides, biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and other renewable energy sources. Thermodynamics of renewable energy conversion: Energy and exergy analysis of renewable energy power systems. Optimum design of hybrid renewable energy systems: Concept, considerations and methodologies. Design of renewable energy systems: Design concept, operational parameters, consideration and rational values for agro industrial applications. Performance analysis of renewable energy systems: Standards and test codes, optimum performance records, evaluation and maintenance aspects, uses of HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) software.
Practical: Estimation and assessment of renewable energy sources in India.Thermodynamic principles of energy conversion.Design and operational parameters of renewable energy systems. Study on standards and test codes of renewable energy systems.
Course Title : Energy Generation from Agricultural Waste and Byproducts REE 512
Content: Products: Generation, estimation and utilization. Agricultural and agro industrial by-products/wastes: Properties, characterization, on site handling, storage and processing. Concept, scope and maintenance of waste management and effluent treatment. Waste as fuel: Utilization pattern, pretreatments, secondary treatments, mechanism, construction, efficiency and suitability. Utilization of agro based industrial wastes for paper production, production of particle board, fertilizer through vermi-composting and fuel. Thermo-chemical and biochemical conversion of agricultural waste and byproducts: Densification, combustion, gasification, extraction, pyrolysis, carbonization, torrefaction, liquefaction, anaerobic digestion and fermentation process.
Practical: Estimation and characterization of agricultural waste and byproducts, production of fuel from agricultural wastes and by products, techno-economic feasibility of waste to fuel systems.
– Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
M.Tech. in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Major Courses (Requirement: 20 Credits)
Course Code Course Title
*SWCE 501 Advanced Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
*SWCE 502 Applied Watershed Hydrology
SWCE 503 Soil and Water Conservation Structures
SWCE 504 Stochastic Hydrology
*SWCE 505 Watershed Management and Modeling
SWCE 506 Flow Through Porous Media
SWCE 507/IDE 507 Remote Sensing and GIS for Land and Water Resource Management
SWCE 508 Climate Change and Water Resources
SWCE 509 Numerical Methods in Hydrology
SWCE 510 Dryland Water Management Technologies
Minor Courses (Requirement: 08 Credits)
Course Code Course Title
IDE 505 Design of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
IDE 506 Groundwater Engineering
IDE 510 Minor Irrigation
IDE 513 Water Resources Systems Engineering
CE 501 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
CE 502 Water Quality and Pollution Control
FMPE 517 Machinery for Precision Agriculture
REE 513 Energy, Ecology and Environment
CSE 501 Big Data Analytics
CSE 502 Artificial Intelligence
CSE 504 Soft Computing Techniques in Engineering
MATH 501 Finite Element Methods
MATH 502 Numerical Methods for Engineers
ME 501 Mechatronics and Robotics in Agriculture
M.Tech. in Soil and Water Conservation Engineering
Course Title: Advanced Soil and Water Conservation Engineering SWCE 501
Content: Concept of probability in design of soil and water conservation structures. Probability and continuous frequency distribution. Fitting empirical distributions. Relevance of soil and water conservation in agriculture and in the river valley projects. Layout and planning of soil and water conservation measures. Software’s for design of conservation structures. Productivity loss due to soil erosion. Water stress and water excess. Types and mechanics of soil erosion. Software’s for soil loss estimation, WEAP, EPIC. Theories of sediment transport. Control of runoff and sediment loss. Sediment deposition process. Estimation of sediment load. Design of soil and water conservation structures: Check dams, gully plugs, gabion structures, earth dams, silt detention dams, farm ponds, etc., and the alternate use of the stored water for agriculture. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Soil and Water Conservation.
Practical: Assessment of erosive status of a watershed through field measurement or analysis of morphometric properties. Estimation of erosivity index of rainfall. Determination of soil physical properties: Texture, grain size distribution, Atterberg’s limits, various moisture percentages. Locating best possible sites of soil and water conservation structures on the basis of map features and erosivity status. Estimation of costs of soil and water conservation measures.
Course Title : Applied Watershed Hydrology II. Course Code : SWCE 502
Content: Hydrology in water resources planning, rainfall, surface runoff and sub-surface runoff as components of hydrologic cycle. Runoff phenomena, relationship between precipitation and runoff. Stream flow measurement and analysis of data in detail. Synthetic unit hydrograph. Recent advances in analysis of hydrologic data and flow from small watersheds. Methods of runoff estimation from small watersheds. Use of IUH and various methods of estimation. Runoff estimation models: SCS, CN software. Micro climate, estimation methods of evaporation. Advances and improvements in rational approach. SCS approach criticism and improvements. Hydrological hazard functions. Methods of estimation of hydrologic parameters. Data transformation. Calibration and evaluation of hydrologic models. Computer simulation of hydrological process in small watersheds.
Practical: Delineation of watershed and study of watershed characteristics. Measurement of rainfall and runoff in a watershed and data analysis. Estimation of infiltration and runoff from a watershed. Analysis and derivation of various types of hydrographs. Flood routing. Reservoir sedimentation. Watershed model components. Visit to a watershed.
Course Title: Soil and Water Conservation Structures SWCE 503
Content: Design, planning and layout of soil and water conservation structures. Criteria of selection of appropriate structures as per soil, land use and climatic conditions. Design and construction of earthen dam, stability analysis of land slopes and soil mass including landslides. Hydrological and structural design including stress analysis. Hydraulic jump and energy dissipaters for soil conservation structures. Seepage through dams, flow net and determination of uplift pressure in drop structures, design of energy dissipaters. Design of water harvesting structures, construction, maintenance and utilization of stored water. Mechanized construction techniques for soil and water conservation structures.
Practical: Numerical approach on probability distribution functions. Stability analysis and structural design of masonry water harvesting structures. Design of earthen dams and other energy dissipating structures. Cost analysis of water harvesting structures. Field visit to already constructed water harvesting structures in the nearby area/ watershed.
Course Title : Stochastic Hydrology SWCE 504
Content: Hydrologic cycle, Systems concept, Hydrologic systems model. Classification of hydrologic models, Statistical, stochastic and deterministic approaches. Statistical characteristics of hydrological data, probability distribution of hydrologic variables. Deterministic and stochastic hydrology, Cause and effect analysis. Hydrologic time series analysis – nature, stationarity and ergodicity, components of time series, trend, periodicity and stochastic parts, parameter estimation of probability distributions. Analysis of hydrologic extremes. Multivariate regression analysis, correlation analysis, correlation coefficient and its significance in regional analysis. Developing prediction equation by simple and multiple linear regression. Reliability of the Model. Stochastic Process: Classification, stationary process. Time series: Classification, component of time series. Methods of investigation: Auto correlation coefficient, moving average process, auto regressive process, auto regressive moving average process, auto regressive integrated moving average process. Spectral analysis, analysis of multivariate hydrologic series. Thomas Fiering model, Box Jenkins model. Model formulation: Parameter estimation, calibration and validation. Application to hydrologic data. Generation and forecasting. Regional flood frequency analysis. Transformations, Hypothesis testing. Modeling hydrologic uncertainty. First order Markov process, Markov chain, Data generation, Hydrologic time series analysis, Modelling of hydrologic time series.
Practical: To estimate various statistical parameters of the hydrologic variables, estimating missing data in historical series, various parameter estimation methods like method of moments, method of maximum likelihood, method of mixed moments, probability of weighted moments fitting discrete and continuous distribution functions to variables, application of transformation techniques to historical data for estimating variables at different return periods, determining correlation and regression coefficients, analyzing multivariate regression, autocorrelation coefficient for independent and correlated events, fitting ARMA models, fitting Markov models of first and second order, regional frequency analysis, time series analysis of the historical data, estimating and fitting Thomas Fiering Model.
Course Title: Watershed Management and Modeling SWCE 505
Content: Concept of watershed, its hydrological and geomorphological characteristics. Status of watershed management programs in India. Problems of desertification and degradation. Concept of watershed management and sustainability, participatory approach and operational watershed. Surveys, monitoring, reclamation and conservation of agricultural and forest watersheds, hill slopes and ravines. Watershed management research instrumentation and measurement, problem identification, simulation and synthesis. Rainfed farming and drought management. Modeling of flood and drought phenomenon. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS in watershed management and modeling. Watershed modeling approaches, mathematical bases and structure of existing watershed models. Environmental impact assessment of watersheds. Quantitative evaluation of management techniques. National land use policy, legal and social aspects. Case studies of watershed management.
Practical: Selection and delineation of a watershed. Benchmark surveys. Preparation of watershed land use map. Preparation of watershed development proposal. Preparation of watershed evaluation and impact assessment report. Application of watershed models for evaluation of conservation treatments. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS in watershed management and modeling.
Course Title: Flow Through Porous Media SWCE 506
Content: Aquifer and fluid properties, forces holding water in soils, hydrodynamics in porous media and limitations of governing laws. Differential equations of saturated flow, initial and boundary conditions. Dupuit and Business approximations and linearization techniques. Stream functions, potential functions and flow net theory. Analysis of seepage from canals and ditches. Unsaturated flow theory, Infiltration and capillary rise flux dynamics. Movement of groundwater in fractured and swelling porous media. Hydro-dynamic dispersion in soil-aquifer system. Velocity hydrograph, flow characteristics at singular points, examples of velocity hydrograph, solution by complex velocity, solution of triangular dam, drainage in retaining structures, influence of seepage on stability of slopes, drainage methods for stability of slopes.
Course Title: GIS and Remote Sensing for Land and Water Resource Management WCE 507/IDE 507
Content: Physics of remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), interaction of EMR with atmosphere, earth surface, soil, water and vegetation. Remote sensing platform, monitoring atmosphere, land and water resources: LANDSAT, SPOT, ERS, IKONOS and others, Indian Space Programme. Satellite Data analysis: Visual interpretation, digital image processing, image preprocessing, image enhancement, image classification and data merging. Definition: Basic components of GIS, map projections and co-ordinate system, spatial data structure-raster, vector, spatial relationship, topology, geodatabase models, hierarchical network, relational, object-oriented models, integrated GIS databasecommon sources of error–data quality: Macro, micro and usage level components, meta data, Spatial data transfer standards. Thematic mapping, measurements in GIS: Length, perimeter and areas. Query analysis, reclassification: Buffering, neighbourhood functions, map overlay: Vector and raster overlay: Interpolation, network analysis, digital elevation modelling. Analytical Hierarchy Process, Object oriented GIS–AM/FM/GIS, Web Based GIS. Unit V Spatial data sources: 4M GIS approach water resources system, Thematic maps, rainfall runoff modelling, groundwater modelling, water quality modelling and flood inundation mapping and modelling. Drought monitoring, cropping pattern change analysis, performance evaluation of irrigation commands. Site selection for artificial recharge, reservoir sedimentation.
Practical: Familiarization with the Remote sensing instruments and satellite imagery. Aerial Photograph and scale determination with stereoscope. Interpretation of satellite imageries and aerial photographs. Determination of Parallaxes in images. Introduction to digital image processing software and GIS software and their working principles. Generation of digital elevation model (DEM) for land and water resource management. Case studies on mapping, monitoring and management of natural resources using remote sensing and GIS.
Course Title : Climate Change and Water Resources SWCE 508
Content: The climate system: Definitions, climate, climate system, climate change. Drivers of climate change, characteristics of climate system components: Greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, wind systems. Trade winds and the Hadley Cell, ozone hole in the stratosphere, El Nino, La Nina– ENSO, teleconnections. Impacts of climate change: Observed and projected, global and Indian scenario, observed changes and projected changes of IPCC: Impacts on water resources, NATCOM Report, impacts on sectoral vulnerabilities, SRES, different scenarios, climate change impacts on ET and irrigation demand. Tools for vulnerability assessment: Need for vulnerability assessment, steps for assessment, approaches for assessment. Models: Quantitative models, Economic models, impact matrix approach, Box models, Zero-dimensional models, Radioactiveconvective models, Higher-dimension models, EMICs (Earth-system models of intermediate complexity), GCMs (global climate models or general circulation models), Sectoral models. Adaptation and mitigation water: Related adaptation to climate change in the fields of ecosystems and biodiversity, agriculture and food security, land use and forestry, human health, water supply and sanitation, infrastructure and economy (insurance, tourism, industry and transportation), Adaptation, vulnerability and sustainable development. Sector specific mitigation: Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), bio-energy crops, biomass electricity, hydropower, geothermal energy, energy use in buildings, land-use change and management, cropland management, afforestation and reforestation. Potential water resource conflicts between adaptation and mitigation. Implications for policy and sustainable development. Case studies: Water resources assessment case studies: Ganga Damodar Project, Himalayan glacier studies, Ganga valley project. Adaptation strategies in assessment of water resources. Hydrological design practices and dam safety, operation policies for water resources projects. Flood management strategies, drought management strategies, temporal and spatial assessment of water for irrigation, land use and cropping pattern, coastal zone management strategies.
Course Title: Numerical Methods in Hydrology SWCE 509
Content: Review of finite difference operators. Concept of linear space and basis functions. Approximating from finite dimensional sub spaces. Variational and weighted residual methods. Langrange polynomials. Triangular and quadrilateral shape functions. Isoparametric elements and transformation of coordinates. Basis functions in three dimensions. Galerkin finite element solution of Laplace, diffusion and dispersion-convection equations. Method of collocation, application in surface and sub surface hydrology.
Course Title : Dryland Water Management Technologies SWCE 510
Content: Drought severity assessment: Meteorological, hydrological and agricultural methods. Drought indices. GIS based drought information system, drought vulnerability assessment and mapping using GIS. DPAP programme, drought monitoring constraints, limiting crop production in dry land areas. Types of drought, characterization of environment for water availability, crop planning for erratic and aberrant weather conditions. Stress physiology and crop resistance to drought, adaptation of crop plants to drought, drought management strategies. Preparation of appropriate crop plans for dry land areas. Mid contingent plan for aberrant weather conditions. Land shaping and land development for soil moisture conservation. Improvement of tillage and soil management by implements and engineering practices. Soil and moisture conservation for rainfed lands through improved implements and engineering practices. Gel technology. Ex-situ measures: Water harvesting-micro catchments. Design of small water harvesting structures: Farm Ponds, percolation tanks their types and design, recycling of runoff water for crop productivity. Crops and cropping practices related to soil and moisture conservation. Fertility management in dryland farming. Planning and development of watersheds from engineering view point. Case studies. Application of aerial photography in surveys and planning of watersheds for rainfed agriculture. Use of Remote Sensing in soil moisture estimation.